[Book Cover]

Developing SGML DTDs: From Text to Model to Markup, 1/e

Eve Maler, Burlington, MA
Jeanne El Andaloussi, Aubervilliers, France

Published December, 1995 by Prentice Hall PTR (ECS Professional)

Copyright 1996, 560 pp.
ISBN 0-13-309881-8

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This text describes a methodology and techniques for designing and writing document type definitions (DTDs), the rules governing SGML document strucure. It covers all aspects of DTD development, including planning, analysis, design, implementation, testing, documentation, and training.


focuses on the mental processes and the project processes that take place during DTD development.
explains and “packages” DTD design so that subject matter experts can contribute as fully as possible, partly by using a graphics tree-diagram notation that is easy to understand but that provides much of the power that SGML itself provides.
adds rigor to the development process by treating requirements gathering, design specifications, implementation, and other stages as separate tasks with distinct goals, and by explaining how to do rationale management.

Table of Contents

    1. Introduction to SGML.

      SGML, Document Types, and Documents. SGML and Other Markup Systems. Procedural Markup Versus Declarative Markup. System-Specific Markup Versus Generic Markup. Noncontextual Markup Versus Contextual Markup. SGML Markup Strengths. SGML Constructs. Elements. Attributes. Entities. Comments. Putting the Pieces Together. SGML Document Processing.

    2. Introduction to DTD Development.

      DTD Development Phases. SGML Information-Modeling Tools and Formalisms.

    3. DTD Project Management.

      The Global Picture. Types of Interaction with Documents. Document Creation and Modification. Document Management and Storage. Document Utilization. Components of an SGML-Based Production System. Editing Tools and Environments. Conversion Engines and Applications. Document Management System. Formatting Engines and Applications. Transformation Engines and Applications. Search and Retrieval Engines and Viewing Interfaces. Other Processing Applications. Document Engineering Toolbox. Dependencies Between Production System Components. The Reference DTD and its Variants. Interchange DTD. Authoring DTDs. Conversion DTDs. Presentation DTDs. Data Flow Among the DTDs. Preparing to Launch the Project. Project Risks. Defining Goals and Strategic Directions. Staffing the Project. Listing Deliverables. Planning the Schedule and Budget. Launching the Project. Setting Up the Project Team. The Project Leader. The Design Team and Facilitator. The DTD Implementor. Guest Experts. The One-Man Band Situation. Defining the Scope of Documents. Listing the Constraints. Identifying Future Users. Describing the Workflow. Writing the Project Plan. Politics of the Project.

    4. Document Type Needs Analysis.

      Preparing for the Team's Work. Training and Technical Preparation. Basic SGML Concepts. Semantic Components. Recognizing Content, Structure, and Presentation. Recognizing Nested Containment. SGML Project Overview and Design Principles. Tree Diagram Notation. Administrative Preparation. Deliverables. Teamwork Norms. Data Gathering. Performing the Needs Analysis. Step 1: Identifying Potential Components. Step 2: Classifying Components. Step 3: Validating the Analysis Against Similar Analyses.

    5. Document Type Modeling and Specification.

      Preparing for the Modeling Work. Designing the New Document Type. Step 4: Selecting Semantic Components. Step 5: Building the Document Hierarchy. Addressing Structural Components. Addressing Metainformation Components. Step 6: Building Information Units. Step 7: Building Data-Level Elements. Step 8: Populating the Branches. Step 9: Making Connections. Links. Special Features. Entities. Step 10: Validating and Reviewing the Design. Working from External Sources. Reviewing the Specifications. Producing the Document Analysis Report. Writing the Document Analysis Report. Reviewing the Document Analysis Report. Finalizing the Document Analysis Report. Upgrading the Model.

    6. Modeling Considerations.

      Elements Versus Attributes. Multiple Elements. Single Element in Different Contexts. Single Element with Partitioned Content Models. Single Element with Multiple Attribute Values. Container Elements Versus Flat Structures. Documents as Databases. Descriptive Versus Prescriptive Models. Divisions. SGML Representations Versus Data Notations. Generated Text Versus Text Supplied by Authors. Simple Paragraphs Versus Complex Paragraphs. Inline Versus Block Elements.

    7. Design Under Special Constraints.

      Reusing Existing DTDs. Designing Document Types as an Industry-Wide Effort.
    8. Markup Model Design and Implementation.

      Determining the Number of DTDs. Creating DTDs for Nested Document Types. Creating Variant Element Type and Attribute Declarations. Interpreting Element Content Model Requirements. Handling Requirements That Specify Ambiguous Content Models. Forcing the Occurrence of One of Several Optional Elements. Handling Requirements for Mixed Content. Handling Requirements for Attributes. Designing Enumerated-Type Attributes. Designing ID and ID Reference Attributes. Designing Attributes with Implied Values. Useful Markup to Consider. Semantic Extension Markup. Markup That Eases Document Conversion. Designing Markup Names. Designing Markup Minimization. Addressing Other Factors in Markup Design. Allowing Markup Characters as Document Content. Defining Entities for Special Symbols and Characters. Creating Text Databases and Templates. Supplying a Default Entity Declaration. Identifying and Registering the DTD.

    9. Techniques for Maintenance and Readability.

      Using Good “Coding” Style. Comment Style. White Space Style. Organizing Element and Attribute Declarations. Managing Parameter Entities for Element Collections. Synchronizing the Content Models and Attributes of Multiple Elements. Creating New Attribute Keywords.

    10. Techniques for Reuse and Modification.

      Categories of Modification. Subsetted Markup Models. Extended Markup Models. Renamed Markup Models. Facilitating Modification. Making DTDs Modular. Making Content Models Modifiable. Including Markup Declarations Conditionally. Making Markup Names Modifiable. Modifying Existing DTDs.

    11. Validation and Testing.

      Setting Up and Managing a Bug-Reporting System. Bug Report and Enhancement Request Forms. Bug and Enhancement List. Review and Testing. Validating the DTD. Testing the Markup Model. Wrong or Overly Constrained Model. Overly Broad Model. Testing the Use of the DTD in the Real World. Model Not Well Suited to Applications. Model Difficult to Use.
    12. Documentation.

      Documentation for Users of the Markup. Reference Manual and Online Help. User's Guide. Tool Guides. Quick Reference. Online Help. Documentation for Readers of the DTD.

    13. Training.

      Training Audiences. Training Program and Techniques. Phase 1: Initial Training. Introduction. Lectures and Paper Exercises on the DTD. Global Presentation of the DTD. The Document Hierarchical Structure. The Document Metainformation. The Document Information Pool. Linking Processes. Miscellaneous Topics. Conclusion of the Lectures and Paper Exercises. Computer Lab on the DTD. The Editing Software and Environment. Tagging Exercises on Known Documents. Tagging Exercises on Unknown Documents. Creation and Tagging of New Documents. Conclusion of Initial Training. Phase 2: Training Followup. Phase 3: Refresher Course. Post-Training Activities. Phase 4: Support. Phase 5. Quality Inspection of Documents. Phase 6: Information and Training on the DTD Updates. Training Administration. The Training Framework. Training Prerequisites. Number of Participants. Length and Organization of the Training. Choice of Trainers. Training Materials. The Learning Curve: A Few Figures and a Few Hints. Time Span. Productivity Assessment. Underlying Difficulties to Overcome.

    A. Implementor's Crib Notes.

      Element Declarations. Attribute Definition List Declarations. Entities. General Entity Declarations. Parameter Entity Declarations. Comments. Marked Section Declarations. Notation Declarations. Document Type Declarations. Formal Public Identifiers. SGML Declarations.

    B. Tree Diagram Reference.

      Elements. Sequential and Either-Or Relationships. Occurrence Specifications. Collections. Groups. Attributes. Additional Notations. Tree Diagram Building Process.

    C. DTD Reuse and Modification Sample.

      Original DTD Structure. Modified DTD Structure. Main DTD Files. Document Hierarchy and Metainformation Modules. Information Pool Module. Markup Model Changes Made.

    D. ISO Character Entity Sets.
    E. Bibliograpy.


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