|Prentice Hall Author Guidelines|
Author Guide #2: Easy Print Version
FOR PTR AUTHOR SUBMISSIONS INCLUDING CAMERA-READY COPY
The Editorial Staff
When your book has been accepted for publication by Prentice Hall, many people become involved in turning your original manuscript into the final bound book. It may help to familiarize yourself with how some of these people contribute to making your book a success.
The first person you will normally come in contact with at Prentice Hall is the editor who originally approached you about your manuscript, signed your contract, and followed the course of your manuscript's development up to the time of its acceptance for publication. This person, variously referred to as acquisitions editor, associate editor, subject editor, or publisher, we call simply the editor throughout this Guide.
Once your manuscript has been accepted and put into production, a production editor (also called a desktop editor) is assigned to supervise the transition from manuscript to bound book. This person oversees the internal design of your book, the copyediting and proofreading of your manuscript, the preparation of artwork, and the composition of pages, among other things. Because the production editor is in contact with artists, compositors, copy editors, and others involved in producing your book, he or she should be your first contact at every stage of production. He or she is the person most often available should you need information on the status of your book, answers to questions and solutions to problems, and advice on the best way to proceed.
The copy editor reads your manuscript for errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure. He or she also checks organizational detail, consistency, and redundancy. The production editor employs a professional copy editor who has experience editing the type of manuscript you have written, and works closely with him or her. Typically, the copy editor has no direct contact with the author, so questions about the copyedited manuscript should be directed to the production editor.
The marketing manager works closely with the acquisitions editor to decide on the best marketing and sales strategy for your book. It is during this process that the design of the cover (one of the most important advertising pieces) is discussed.
The permissions editor grants authors of other publishers permission to use matter from your book, not the converse. Getting permission to use copyrighted material from other sources in your book remains your responsibility.
Everyone involved in producing your book works hard to make sure that the final product contains no errors. However, if your book requires corrections, the reprint editor sees that they are made before your book is reprinted.
Workflow Once You Submit Your Final Manuscript
When your manuscript arrives at our offices, the job of editing and producing the book begins. Authors often wonder, and understandably so, why this process appears to take so long. To answer this question, we will trace the progress of a manuscript through the many stages of production. If you are providing us with manuscript that we are to make into pages, then this section is for you.
The Editor and the Reviewer
When the editor who specializes in your subject receives your manuscript, it may be submitted to one or more experts in your field of study, who will read and evaluate it with care and send reviews to the editor. The editor evaluates the reviews and may discuss them with you or will simply refer these reviews to you for consideration and for any revisions you may wish or need to make in view of the readers' comments and criticism.
In the meantime, the editor considers the manuscript in terms of its potential market: For what level is it best suited? What is its competition? What is its trade appeal? The editor has an intimate knowledge of these factors and will also call upon the knowledge of fellow editors and marketing managers, whose experience in related fields may prove invaluable in assessing the market. Much of the information gathered will not only be helpful in editing the manuscript but will also provide the basis for planning the book's physical format.
After all reviewers' reports are in and you have responded to themand the editor has made preliminary decisions on estimated sales, format, number of copies to be printed, selling price, and so forththe decision is made by the publisher that the manuscript is ready for production. The manuscript is then turned over to the Production Department. A production editor examines the manuscript to become familiar with the entire project and to determine whether any problems exist.
Whether you use our templates or a design of your own, you must submit a sample file for testing as soon as possible. The sample need not be final manuscript, but it should contain all elements that will be found in the book, including heads, tables, code, and figures of every type. Early testing will help us avoid rework of elements and will alert us to potential problems.
All parties at the launch meeting, each in a different area of responsiblity, air their views; each leaves the meeting with an understanding of the approaches to be taken in progressing from the manuscript to a bound book.
Estimates and Approvals
The production editor sends a sample disk or tape to the printer, along with the accompanying hard copy, so that we can make certain one last time that we will not have a problem in playing out the film, electronically imposing it, and printing from it. If there is a problem, he or she will inform you immediately so that we can get revised material from you.
Verify the position of all tables and check all text references to tables and illustrations; don't overlook correcting a reference such as to "the figure below" in a line that follows the figure referred to. Finally, check the running head at the top of each page and the page number. These should be automatic tasks in most word processors and page layout programs, but sometimes the program does exactly what you tell it to do and in doing so, does not catch errors you may have made in using style sheets or templates.
This is your final look before the book goes to the printer, so make certain that what you see is what you intend.Front Matter Proofs
If you would like, your production editor can compose your title and copyright pages, and perhaps your series page, and will send that material to the printer along with the rest of your files. The front matter is distributed widely throughout the marketing and editorial departments, who use the information contained there for sales purposes (we use your materials on our web site, possibly in print or e-mailed ads, on the back cover copy, etc. to help sell your book). Please make sure this material-the preface and/or foreword-is as informative as possible.
A great amount of attention is paid to the cover because the reader gains the first impression of the book through this element. The cover must be aesthetically appealing, eye-catching, compatible with the interior format and content, and correct for the audience the book is to reach.
Once sketches of the cover have been approved, the designs are completed, back cover copy is written and approved, and mechanicals are then prepared and sent to the printer, so that the finished will be available when the book has been printed and is ready to be bound. The sketches are also used for sales purposes-they are put into our catalogs, our sales reps may get copies of them to show to their accounts, etc. The cover is one of the most important elements of your book.
Premastering software to create cross-platform CD-ROMs is getting better every day. Today there are just a few premastering software packages that can create cross-platform CDs and preserve every feature of existing computing environments. These CDs can be accessible in the native environment of Windows (3.1, 95, and NT), Macintosh, and Unix systems (many flavors). The formats we use are:
We are in the process of evaluating new generations of premastering software packages as an on-going R&D process, so we can continually be on top of the technology and upgrade our systems, as well as making sure that our vendors do the same.
You may find these tips helpful in putting together your materials:
If you have questions while you are getting the materials together be sure to contact your editor or production manager.
When you submit your files, either on separate media for us to premaster or on a premastered CDR, please include a printed directory listing.
Compiles the Index?
Many word-processing and page layout programs allow you to create your own index as you prepare the manuscript. This section's general guidelines for index preparation still apply to embedded and tagged indexes, but there are a few special considerations.
As you go along placing index markers, you may wish to create a reference file of your main headings and the style of your entries. This will help you avoid going back to fix redundant headings in the index. If, for example, you mark some entries under the heading "Networks" and others under "Networking," you will have to go back and change the reference at each insertion point. It is important that you update the in-line references, and not just the output index. This way, when the index needs to be regenerated to accommodate editing changes, it will not need to be corrected again. It will also save time and effort for revised editions of the book.
If you prefer to have a professional indexer compile your index, we will arrange to have it prepared here by one of a number of experienced freelance indexers we have on call. We will pay the indexer directly, advancing the cost against your royalties.
If you compile the index, the following notes will help you:
Some important rules to keep in mind are:
Electronic publishing allows for an easier, more cost-efficient means of preparing pages for the printer. Once the final proofs of a book are checked and approved, a disk or tape containing all of the electronic files (which include art) is sent to the printer. Because both art and text are electronic, they have already been combined during composition. This makes the printer's job easier, since the intermediate stages of turning repro proofs into film and stripping in halftones are no longer necessary. The printer plays out film directly from the electronic files. Sometimes, when halftone or other art is scanned, a low-resolution marker will be put in place in the electronic file. Because of space constraints, we will ask the printer to swap high-resolution art files with the low-resolution files, thus providing the best quality output when needed for the final book, and acceptable quality for proofing during the production of the book. The file sizes of high-resolution art can sometimes be astronomical, especially if color is involved.
The printer makes blueprints or "book blues" (proofs of the page negatives) for our final check before plates are made and the book goes to press. At this point, your production editor will be checking to make sure that the pages are in order, the margins are correct, and other such quality controls.
Offset presses are of the rotary type-that is, both the impression and printing surfaces are cylindrical. These presses may be either sheetfed (flat sheets of paper move into the press individually) or roll-fed (paper is fed to the press from a continuous roll).
Each printed sheet that will make up the book is folded so that the pages on the sheet appear in proper sequence. These folded sheets, consisting usually of thirty-two pages, are called signatures. The signatures are then gathered so that each collation contains all pages of the book in proper order.
The term "paperbound" books encompasses a wide assortment of bindery styles. The collated signatures are placed in a set of clamps, with the folded or "spine" edges up. One-eighth of an inch is then trimmed from the folded edges so that only single sheets remain. Glue is applied to this end surface; then the paper cover is put in position and folded around the book. The entire covered book is then trimmed at the top, bottom, and outside edges to final size. This method, called "perfect binding," is also occasionally used for case-bound books. Another method, "RepKover," is a process of "Lay-Flat" binding which uses cloth as a reinforcement media. This is a method of paper binding which improves functionality of manuals because they "lay flat" easily for constant no-hands reference.
If there is any media in the back of a book, this is a function that will happen after the books are printed and bound. This is hand-work that is a time-consuming process and that can add a week to your print and bind time.
Manuscript and Files
If your book is eventually published in a new edition, some of this material may be usable again, with a saving of time and expense on your part and on ours.
When the stock of the first printing reaches a minimum and a second printing is anticipated, the reprint editor may notify you and request additional minor corrections, if any, by a certain date. These changes will be included if they are minimal and arrive on time. A warning is in order here. The reprint editor may not have enough time to warn you of an impending reprint. Therefore, we advise that you send in corrections as they come up. If possible, we will make the corrections in the files ourselves. However, depending on the number and type of corrections, we may need to go back to the compositor for these changes.
Extensive changes should be saved for a possible revision (or new edition).
When a book is to be illustrated, the author and the publisher are presented with three important considerations: procurement, reproduction, and cost of artwork. The selling price of a book is, in large part, determined by its manufacturing cost. In determining which illustrations to use, a number of facts should be considered. Will a particular illustration contribute enough to the book to be worth the additional expense? If it will, it should be used, but it should be worth the proverbial thousand words. Acquiring a picture or drawing and photographing it for reproduction costs much more than drawing the art yourself with graphics software or having type set that will occupy the same space. Illustrations also add to the length of the book and consequently increase the cost of paper, printing, and binding.
All this is not meant to discourage illustration, but only to encourage careful selection-a chart, a picture, a diagram may do the work of several pages of description and also add greatly to the sales appeal of your book. By all means, however, cut out illustrations that do not relate to the text. Your book will have a greater chance of success without them.
At the time you start work on your manuscript, discuss with us the question of whether your book requires illustrations and, if so, how extensively they should be used and how they will be provided. If you are considering supplying the illustrations yourself, you must send in samples to the production department before you get too far. In this way we can make certain that your work does not go to waste. We need to make certain that your files are both compatible with the page makeup program that we will be using and that, from an artistic point of view, they meet our standards.
You, of course, are the best judge of what is suitable illustration material for your book-whether a photograph, a chart, a graph, or a drawing most clearly expresses what you wish to convey in an instance. Our advice is to start early and to explore your field and your sources thoroughly so that your ultimate choices are as well considered as the words of your manuscript. All too often, an illustration is chosen as an afterthought, conveniently picked from a ready source or sketched in an offhand manner. Again, we urge you to consult with us if you have any questions about what would be suitable illustrative material.
Our Art Department is always glad to suggest sources of artwork and to help you judge the quality of the work done and the reasonableness of the fees charged for it. In fact, if you are going to purchase artwork, YOU MUST SUBMIT SAMPLES or other indications of what you propose to use before spending time and money in obtaining what may be unsatisfactory art. This is especially true if you are planning to draft the art yourself. There is no way we can overemphasize the need for you to submit samples before producing more than a handful of pieces of art. We need to discuss the software program you are planning on using, as well as the different ways of saving the files to make sure that they are usable.
If you are planning on using art that is not new, possibly from a source other than yourself, you must secure written permission from the source to reproduce the illustration (see our section on permissions elsewhere in this Guide). Be certain to supply a credit or courtesy line, however, for all such illustrations, whether or not permission is required.
These added costs may make the pricing of a book difficult-even impossible. Therefore, before you decide that you would like full-color illustrations in your book, be sure to consult with your editor to determine whether use of color can be justified. If, for instance, it is absolutely necessary to show a spectrum in a physics text or an example of a famous artist's work in a book on watercolor painting, obviously we would have to use full color. But such needs are strictly limited.
If you integrate art with text in a page-makeup program, you will need to also supply us with the original art files separately, especially if the art was created with a different program. For example, if art is created with Adobe Illustrator and EPS files imported into Quark XPress or FrameMaker, we will need the Illustrator files as well as the Quark and Frame documents.
When art is included with text in FrameMaker files, be sure that the art is in an anchored frame, anchored in the correct position in the text. Otherwise, even minor reformatting may cause the illustration to be separated from the appropriate text. FrameMaker will allow art frames to overlap text frames and vice versa. Be especially careful about the placement of frames to one side of text copy, since reformatting may cause overlaps or leave gaps.
Avoid using file-compressing software, unless you can also provide us with the means to decompress your files.
Unless you are providing us with "camera ready" files, keep the art on disks separate from those containing text files. Label each disk with the author's name, title of book, hardware and software (include version), all typefaces used (for example, you might use Helvetica for type and Symbol for Greek characters or math symbols), and the format files are saved in. Or include all the information but for the author, title, and hardware on a readme file on the disk.
Include a printout of each piece of art with the following information written on it: author's name, title of book, figure number, hardware and software (with version number).
Supply a font suitcase (copies of screen and printer fonts). Don't use TrueType. You MUST USE ADOBE PS fonts only.
The method of reproducing this type of art also makes it inevitable that some of the detail of the original will be lost. Therefore it is important that the original copy be the best you can find. Select clear, sharp, glossy photographs with good tonal contrast. Be sure that details are as distinct as the larger elements of the picture. Avoid dull or matte finish prints, which are harder to reproduce satisfactorily.
Select your pictures with an eye to composition and dramatic emphasis on important details; a good picture tells a story and elicits a response from the reader. Study each picture carefully to determine whether cropping-eliminating unimportant parts at the top, bottom, or sides of a picture-would improve its effectiveness. Indicate lightly the areas to be cropped on a tissue overlay on the illustration; never mark the photograph or artwork itself or cut it to size.
If any lettering, arrows, or numbers are to be added to the face of the photograph or if any special instructions should accompany it, indicate them on a tissue overlay. Never make any mark on the face of the photograph itself. Write the figure number in the margin of the picture, or if there is no room, very lightly on the back. Even the slightest dent marks from the back will show through onto the surface of the print and will appear in the reproduction, as will smudges, cracks, and scratches caused by careless handling. Do not mount photographs and never paste, clip, or otherwise insert them in the manuscript or use clips to fasten them together-the mark of a paper clip can ruin a photograph.
Screenshots using HiJaak
Numbers and Captions
Some books require no figure numbers for the illustrations, but even then a temporary number should be assigned to each of them and keyed into the manuscript to enable the production editor to identify the illustrations and place them correctly if you are not already doing so yourself.
If, as you are keyboarding the manuscript and if we are to make pages later, you know where the figures are to go, type, for instance, (((Fig. 3-4 here))) on the proper page on a separate line, centered from left to right. Otherwise, when the typing is completed, make a marginal note (circled) on the manuscript page to show where each illustration is to be placed.
Generate a list of captions for each chapter and place the list at the end of each chapter file, identifying captions by figure number or temporary identification number and including any necessary credits. Be sure that spelling, symbols, capitalization, and so forth, are consistent with the style used in the text.
The terms revision and new edition are interchangeable as we use them; our practice is to call the first revision the "second edition," the second revision the "third edition," and so on. A revision usually requires a major overhauling of the book to reflect advances in research and theory. Consequently, the type-or much of it-must be reset.
Your editor will notify you when your book requires revision and will advise you when the manuscript must be completed to meet a proposed tentative publication date.
Once a revision is decided upon, as much care should go into it as went into the original edition. In general, the length of revision should not exceed that of the previous edition. A longer book manufactured at a cost far higher than that of the previous edition may be very difficult or impossible to price competitively.
We suggest that you work directly in the files as much as possible. Make all your changes without regard to formatting issues. Focus on the new content. If pages are to be made by Prentice Hall, we will worry about the formatting later, just as we did for the first edition. Follow the same procedures as in the first edition of your book. When you are ready to submit your files to us, make sure that you also submit 2 copies of complete, up-to-date, and accurate files. If you need to make any changes after that stage, mark them on the hard copy. The files must match the hard copy (before you handwrite anything in the margins).
If you originally provided your book as a finished electronic file or if we made pages using a desktop program (in Microsoft Word, Quark Xpress, FrameMaker, LaTeX, or another page-makeup program, for example) it will be easier for you to do the revisions to the file yourself and submit the new file for the next edition.
If you did not originally submit an electronic file, but you now have the ability to produce a book electronically, speak to your editor about the possibility of getting the electronic files of your book to revise electronically yourself. We may have produced the book utilizing a desktop system ourselves or we may be able to provide you with ascii files that will minimize the need to re-key everything.
When your manuscript is complete, make two copies. Send the original to us and keep the copy for your records.