a book is a logical process of presenting a systemized body of knowledge
in a manner suitable to the audience for which the book is intended. This
Guide shows you how to construct each portion of your manuscript clearly
and concisely, and takes you through all of the steps involved in producing
a book. The final result-the bound book-will be an indispensable tool
for the reader and a proud and profitable achievement for both author
In case we give the impression that all authors should be able to sit
at a computer, with some general rules in mind, and proceed to construct
a flawless manuscript, we want to add that the writing process usually
involves drafting the same material several times, until a satisfactory
manuscript or camera ready material has been completed, ready for the
publisher. In the following pages, we suggest guidelines to follow as
you progress with your writing.
factors come into play in deciding how long to make a manuscript. First,
consider the problem of reader resistance. Readers may be hesitant to
pick up a book that is extremely long (the classic protest is the eighteenth-century
Duke of Gloucester's "Another damned thick heavy book! Scribble, scribble,
scribble! Eh, Mr. Gibbon!"). Second, take into account the desire to cover
the subject completely. You can get a good sense of the general limits
for your manuscript length from your contract. We have found that these
limits are often overrun, with one of two results. The manuscript must
be cut, causing a delay in publication and difficulties for the author,
who often cannot simply cut out one complete section but must overhaul
the entire manuscript. Or the book is published in its expanded form,
creating additional costs for editing, composition, paper, printing, and
binding, thereby necessitating a higher selling price-perhaps enough higher
than the prices of competing books that its sale may be restricted.
manuscript length often results from not sticking to the original plan
for the book. Often the original plan is a good one, but in the actual
writing the author strays from the main purpose; or, though generally
adhering to the plan, overwhelms it with detail. Either way, the manuscript
gets out of hand. The remedy is a detailed outline-for the book as a whole
and for each chapter-drawn up with the contract manuscript length in mind.
Refer to your outline frequently and revise it when necessary. And, as
you write, check each chapter against it to make sure that the manuscript
is growing according to your plan.
also contributes to making a manuscript longer than planned. Certainly
it takes extra time to think through each sentence as you write it instead
of relying on ready-made expressions. Strip away all those words that
add nothing to the meaning of a sentence. Reject the several approximate
words that come easily to mind in favor of the one exact word it takes
time to discover. Shun circumlocution (a lengthy, roundabout way
of stating something) for direct statement. Avoid tautology (such expressions
as "audible to the ear"). Express simple ideas in simple language. Above
all, recognize fuzziness of expression as a corollary of fuzziness in
thinking and either clarify the thought or reject it as too vague for
expression. This method of writing is slow and exacting, but is a good
way to keep the manuscript within bounds and increase its utility and
readability. In your writing maintain a sharp lookout for symptoms of
phrasing that makes repetition necessary to keep the sentence on the
of nouns depending on one another
conjunctions, and adverbial expressions made up of two or more words-with
reference to, in conjunction with, in the event that, in the nature
of, as to whether
introductory words and phrases and constant "hedging"-furthermore,
moreover, notwithstanding, it is believed that, it is obvious that,
course, there is such a thing as being too brief. For example, consider
this undigested sentence:
association with words in certain combinations always stirs up
the original source of that association."
the writer had wanted to say something like this:
use of) words in certain combinations (that have old) associations
always stirs up (in the reader's mind a recollection of) the source
of those associations."
Be clear in your own mind about what you want to say-and then say it in
the necessary number of words, no more and no less.
Directly to Your Readers
good writers address their readers in the second person (or second person
understood) throughout their books. In the same way you can invite the
cooperation of the reader by using "we" and "us" instead of the impersonal
"one"as in this example from an accounting book:
understand why this is so, let us put ourselves in the position
of a New York banker."
Be careful not to switch from second to third person or from first person
singular to first person plural at random. (For instance, don't say "I"
in one paragraph and "we" in the next.) There is nothing condescending
in the direct approach. It is possible to write directly and informally
without being folksy or writing down.
In your own efforts to write simply and directly, don't go to the other
extreme and write as if all your readers were incapable of understanding
the basic language. Adapt your style to your audience. Remember to write
to your audience. This will require constant application of your imagination
not to omit any steps between what they already know and what you want
to tell them. Above all, don't try to write two books at once, addressing
yourself to lower level readers in one sentence and to higher level colleagues
in the next. Keep the level and tone of your book consistent from beginning
A good reference or text book does more than provide material to be learned-it
helps readers to learn it. Use headings and subheadings intelligently
to organize your text for study and to break it up into readable units
(your outline will be helpful to you here). If readers glance through
the pages, reading nothing but the subheadings (as they often do), they
should get some idea of the structure of the chapter. It is important
to keep all headings and subheadings parallel in construction if possible.
Don't alternate phrases and complete sentences. Decide what style of heading
and subheading you are going to use, then follow that style throughout
your manuscript, or at least throughout any given chapter if you find
that the style cannot be made to work for the entire manuscript. But don't
overdo this business of organization and make your book look like an outline
or syllabus. One or two levels of headings within a chapter are usually
Date Your Book
care not to "date" your book. When a book becomes quickly dated, its sales
drop off. Here are some danger signals to watch for.
matter based on years
Keep tabular and statistical material to a minimum. Often you can
state the conclusions derived from tabular matter without actually
presenting the tables. If you are giving statistics for the current
year, you should present them in the same way you would present statistics
for the year 1918 or any other previous year. Use the past tense,
for example, to state the number of strikes or worker hours lost for
the current year to date.
of Names Coupled with Titles or Offices that are Likely to Change
For example, an author writing during the Clinton Administration should
say "Warren Christopher, Secretary of State during the Clinton Administration"
rather than "Warren Christopher, Secretary of State."
of Current Events with Only Passing Interest and Little Significance,
for Illustrative Purposes
For instance, to describe in the present tense a current event in
a political campaign will soon date the book. If you must describe
such an event, use the past tense. Never write, "During the current
campaign" or "In the present campaign. . . ."
of the Time Element into Current History
Don't say, "Since the 1992 presidential election, consumer confidence
increased." Say instead, "After the 1992 presidential election, consumer
confidence has increased." Don't say, "Although the Gulf War ended
several years ago." Say instead, "After the end of the Gulf War. .
The best way to tell whether you have included dated material is to
assume you are reading your manuscript five years from now. Then ask
yourself whether some parts of it might not be better omitted or at
least written in the past tense. Few books can be made good for all
time, but a little attention to "dating" will go a long way toward
prolonging the life of any book. One easy item to overlook is the
date in your preface-don't include it.
you work on your manuscript, you may find it necessary to consult grammar
and style guides. There are many reference guides available, but we recommend
using the following:
Chicago Manual of Style,Thirteenth Edition,
Chicago: U. Chicago Press.
into Type, Third Edition,
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall PTR, Inc.
into Type, Swanson,
Ellen, Providence, R.I.: American Mathematical Society.
With respect to works created on or after January 1, 1978, copyright protection
generally exists for a period consisting of the life of the author plus
a term of fifty years after the death of the author. In the case of works
of joint authorship, the fifty years is measured from the death of the
last surviving author.
No application for copyright renewal need now be made for such works
as was required under the old copyright law. However, if the work was
created prior to January 1, 1978, and was subject to the Federal Copyright
Law then in effect, copyright will automatically be renewed in the twenty-eighth
year of the first copyright term and will continue for an additional
period of forty-seven years. The law encourages but does not require
the filing of renewal registration. If a work was already in its second
term of copyright on or before December 31, 1977, copyright protection
will continue for forty-seven years from the first day of the renewal
term, i.e., 75 years from publication.
The present Copyright Law has, for the most part, replaced so called
common-law copyright, that is, copyright for works which had not been
published or had not been registered for copyright as unpublished. Such
works created before January 1, 1978, are now generally protected by
copyright law or the life of the author plus fifty years. However, even
if the author has been dead for more than fifty years, protection will
continue at least until December 31, 2002.
works that are not subject to copyright protection (i.e., works in the
"public domain") may be copied. The copyright on all works published
in the United States before September, 1906, has expired. Also, works
published or registered for copyright as unpublished before January
1, 1964, and for which copyright renewal was required but not obtained
have gone into the public domain. It should be noted that "revisions"
or "adaptations" of such works may still be subject to copyright protection,
even if the original public domain source is not.
speaking, United States government publications and official state publications
are not subject to copyright protection. However, the mere inclusion
of material in a government publication, even one without a copyright
notice, does not necessarily mean that it is in the public domain. This
is so because a government agency may have used copyrighted material
without indicating its copyright status. In each case you should check
very carefully to determine the status of any material you wish to quote.
If any question exists about the copyright status of any material that
is not original with you, you should always consult the original publisher
and/or an attorney and discuss the matter with your editor.
quotation does not have to be exact to require permission; even if the
material is paraphrased or adapted, get permission to use it in that
Artwork and Tables
If these are subject to copyright protection (whether or not they
have previously appeared in a publication), you must get permission
to use them. This rule applies to all advertisements, whether written
or pictorial, and to photographs of any kind, even though the subject
of the photograph may itself be in the public domain. When you are obtaining
glossy prints from art galleries, museums, historical societies, industrial
firms, or commercial photographers, explain in writing how you intend
to use the prints.
Also remember that if you want to use a photograph of a living person,
you must get written permission to use it from that person, whether
it is copyrighted or not. Even if it is a snapshot of a friend you took
yourself, don't use it without your friend's written permission to do
so. If the person is a minor, be sure to obtain written permission from
the minor's parent or guardian. If you buy photographs from commercial
photographers, explain in writing that you want to use them in a book
(or in advertising) and make certain that they have a release from the
subject broad enough to allow you to use the picture as intended and
that no other release is needed. Get the photographer or stock photo
house to give you that assurance in writing. Your editor can supply
you with forms if necessary.
Photographs of public personalities may freely be used (insofar as the
subject of the photo is concerned) in books or periodicals for their
news or historical value. For example, if you take a picture of a presidential
nominee, you may use it in your book on the presidency without asking
the nominee's permission. (If someone else took the picture, you will
need the photographer's permission.) But you must be very careful not
to allow the picture to be used for any advertising or trade purpose
or in any way that might be defamatory of the subject. To do so without
the written permission of the subject would make you liable to damages
for violating his or her right of privacy. Take care not to use any
photograph to accompany text material that could suggest defamation
of the subject of the photograph.
is the traditional and contractual responsibility of the author to obtain
the necessary permission to use any quoted material or photographs as
described above that are incorporated in the manuscript. Carefully follow
these instructions on permission procedure.
permissions well in advance of the completion of your manuscript.
It is advisable to ask for permission for each quotation as soon as
the decision to use it is made. You may find that you will have to
write more than one letter before you can locate the copyright holder,
or permission for some item may be refused, so that you will have
to substitute other material. Electronic sources, both broadcast and
Internet, still require permissions, as do screen shots of commercial
software. In some cases permissions may be obtained via e-mail. Early
clearance of permissions is critical so that publication of your book
will not be held up.
your copy of this Guide, your editor will send you:
supply of forms to be used for requesting permission. Retain the
second copy of each request form for your file. If you need more
forms, your editor will be glad to supply them on request.
sample showing how the forms are to be completed.
Permissions Checklist. You will find this form helpful in keeping
a record as you are acquiring permissions, and it will be useful
to us as a reference list.
your letters to the attention of the Permissions Editor. (If you want
to use material from a Prentice Hall book, please write us for permission
just as you would to any
the material you want to quote comes from a periodical, you should
ascertain whether a separate copyright appears in the author's name;
if so, the request should be made directly to the author. Also, if
you want to use material that appears in an anthology, you must be
sure to request permission from the publisher who holds the copyright
on the individual selection rather than from the publisher of the
anthology itself. Publishers' addresses may be found in reference
books such as Literary Market Place and Books in Print.
you want to adapt material from a work of another publisher,
be sure to indicate on your permission request in what form you plan
to reproduce the original. (In your manuscript you must insert
ellipses to show where paragraphs, sentences, or words have been deleted
from the original selection.)
put your return address on the form and enclose a self-addressed return
you do not receive a reply to your request within two or three weeks,
send a follow-up letter or fax.
is common for major publishers to send you their own form for completion
and signature rather than returning the request form you sent them.
Simply supply whatever information is called for on their form, sign
the form, and return it to the publisher. Keep a
a publisher is able to grant U.S.-or U.S. and Canadian-rights only
(sometimes Canadian and/or world rights are controlled by a foreign
publisher), the publisher will advise you to whom you must write to
obtain the additional rights. Simply send another request form to
the foreign publisher covering the specific rights you want.
Do not overlook the necessity of obtaining "secondary permissions"-that
is, separate permission to use quoted matter appearing within quoted
a publisher specifies a charge for granting permission to reproduce
certain material, payment is normally due on publication. Prentice
Hall will make any necessary payments in accordance with the terms
of your contract and allocate such charges against your royalty account.
Usually, a publisher requests a flat fee as payment for permission.
you accumulate permission clearances, keep a running total of fees
to be paid. If you find that permission fees are significant consult
submitting your manuscript for publication, send us your completed
file, including the copies of your permissions requests and your Permissions
Checklist. If you have not yet received full clearance on some permissions
requests, include documentation of the status of those permissions.
In your writing, treat men and women impersonally in regard to occupation,
marital status, physical abilities, attitudes, interests, and so on.
Depending on the requirements of your subject, avoid attributing particular
characteristics to either sex; instead let your writing convey that
a person's abilities and achievements are not limited by gender. Your
book should support the fact that both sexes play equally important
roles in all facets of life and that activities on all levels are
open to both women and men alike.
Be careful to avoid sexist language that excludes men or women from
any activity or that implies that either sex is superior or dominant
in a particular role. Where possible, refer to people using words
that are gender neutral. For example, use person or people instead
of man or men when discussing human beings in general, use firefighter
rather than fireman or salesperson instead of salesman, and utilize
inclusive language, such as he or she instead of exclusively using
he. For more information on ways to avoid sexism in writing, ask your
editor to send you a copy of Prentice Halls' Guidelines on Sexism.
Slurs on Race, Religion, or Sexual Orientation
The general rules that apply to the treatment of women also apply
to the treatment of all minority groups. Avoid making blanket statements
that stereotype or criticize a group of people because of their race,
religion, or sexual orientation. Conform to contemporary ways of referring
to racial and ethnic groups. Even though many slurs are unintentional,
they are still very offensive. Avoid using color references that could
be read as derogatory references to racial groups.
Accusations Against Professional Groups
Be careful, too, about making broad general accusations and blanket
attacks on professional groups, associations, and businesses and industries
as a whole.
of the Manuscript
authors want the books they have labored over so long to be produced handsomely,
in the shortest possible time, and with the minimum number of alterations
in proof. But they do not always realize the contribution they themselves
can make through careful preparation of the manuscript. A manuscript in
poor physical condition may require more than normal time for resetting
type, resulting in a long production schedule; also, it may increase the
number of changes the author must make in proof, with a corresponding
increase in charges for author's alterations.
Preparing your manuscript electronically with word-processing or page-layout
software saves the time and cost of having your manuscript reset, and
greatly reduces the possibility of errors being introduced during typesetting.
It also gives you greater control over your work. It is our preference
to receive electronic files from you.
Sample Electronic Files
When preparing your manuscript electronically, you must send sample files
for us to evaluate so we can determine the best means of composition for
your book, give you feedback, and flag possible problems. Therefore, it
is important for us to review your samples before you keyboard your entire
manuscript or draft all art (if you plan to draft the art for your book
yourself). It is much better to know in advance what you should be doing
differently than to revise your entire manuscript later. For the evaluation,
we will need the following materials and information:
disk or tape containing a representative chapter (other than Chapter
1) from your book. The sample should contain all of the various elements
you will be using, such as text, tables, equations, art, footnotes,
lists, and so forth. WE WILL NOT READ FOR SENSE. You may make a composite
chapter, if you wish. If you want to create art or tables in a program
other than your word-processing program, send several representative
samples of the art or table files with matching printouts in addition
to your chapter file. The files will be evaluated by the art and production
directors who will give you feedback and additional guidance, if necessary.
For a book by several authors, be sure to let us know if and what
different software or hardware will be used. It is best if ALL authors
use the same hardware and software. Also, advise us if any part of
the manuscript will not be submitted in electronic form and will need
to be keyboarded.
printout of the chapter that exactly matches the content of the electronic
file(s). THIS IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. Otherwise, there is no way to
verify the accuracy of the test results.
Sample Checklist. Send it along with your sample chapter to provide
information about the hardware and software being used to produce your
manuscript. Be sure to include any special instructions we need to follow
to access your files from the disk or tape.
an Electronic Manuscript
As you begin preparing your electronic manuscript, keep these general
rules in mind:
communication with your editor or production manager regarding the
type of software and hardware you are using, as well as the testing
of your sample chapter, gives us the chance to alert you to any problems
that come up before you have prepared your entire manuscript. Alert
the editor and the production manager immediately if you plan to change
or upgrade the software or hardware you are using at any stage of
production. Changes of this nature must be planned for to avoid delays
in production and additional charges.
your hardware and software supports it, make use of one of the templates
included with this Guide for setting your manuscript and/or preparing
your book in a page-layout program. If you cannot use our templates,
and want to use another page-layout program, ask your editor for the
specifications you will need.
not be too concerned with presenting a fully-designed book to us,
even if you use one of the templates provided with this book, or if
you use a page-layout program of your own. Focus on submitting consistent,
neatly-prepared electronic files and hard copy.
consistent. Confirm that all of the elements of your book are keyboarded
in the same way, especially if there is more than one person keyboarding
the manuscript. For example, if you decide to type first-level heads
in uppercase, make sure it is done throughout all of the chapter files
that contain that type of head. Or, if you are using word-processing
style formats (such as those found in Microsoft Word), be sure to
use the same styles for the same elements from chapter to chapter.
Inconsistencies lead to unnecessary changes of text, which increases
the possibility of errors being introduced.
though the chance for error is greatly reduced by your having supplied
an electronic manuscript, there always remains the possibility of
errors being introduced later. Therefore, you must proofread and spellcheck
your manuscript at all stages of production to make sure it is error-free.
your manuscript with a commonly used word-processing program,
such as Microsoft¨ Word. Take advantage of your word processor's ability
to apply type style, size, and attributes. If you use paragraph style
formatting, such as that found in Microsoft Word, keep the number
of formats to a minimum. Also, send a list indicating which formats
are used for which elements. Some word-processing programs allow you
to print out your style sheet directly from the program.
suggest setting your text in Times, 10 point, applying attributes
as needed. For example, apply italic to identify book or periodical
titles and to emphasize words or phrases. Or boldface heads to make
them stand out. Applying these simple attributes is probably all you
want or need to do as far as designing your text goes. Whatever you
do, be consistent.
most word processors allow for powerful text setting and can filter/convert
text created in other software, avoid submitting ASCII files, which
are not as easy to work with and which drop out bold and italics.
an equation editor, such as MathType, MicrosoftWord or FrameMaker's
resident equation editors, or LaTeX's Scientific Word if you have
access to one, especially if your manuscript contains a large number
of equations. Equation editors are usually easy to use and produce
very good final output. Note, however, that many equation editors
store equations as graphics in the word processing file, and are uneditable
once they have been imported into a page-makeup program. FrameMaker's
resident equation editor does not have this feature. If you work with
a page-makeup program that does not have a resident editor, use an
equation editor extension that will let you edit the equations in
the page files. Do not set equations with a word-processor's formula
typesetting codes (such as those found in MicrosoftWord ). This coding
may be sufficient to express the elements of an equation in a word-processing
file or on a printout, but is generally incompatible with most composition
all cases, the output of equations will be evaluated, and if necessary,
equations will be reset to assure the highest possible quality for
your book. Do not mix equation editors in one manuscript, or mix word-processor
codes with a separate equation editor.
a Page-Layout Program for keyboarding and bringing together all of
the elements of your book. There are many page-layout programs on
the market to choose from, with Quark XPress, FrameMaker, Tex and
LaTeX being among the more popular. If your hardware and software
supports it, use one of the templates provided with this Guide to
make up pages for your book. We may be able to work with files created
with other page-layout programs as well, so do not make the mistake
of converting your pages into text files. Note that although you may
use a page-layout program to submit your manuscript to us, the book's
final design will be evaluated and, if necessary, changed to be competitive
and meet market demands. Please remember to submit samples early on
so that any changes that must be made can be made as soon as possible.
black as the color for your text. Apply colors or tints only if prior
arrangements have been made with your editor and the production department.
If color will be used in your book, it will be selected by the art
director and applied to the text during composition.
the manuscript line spacing to double. Set margins to 1-inch on all
four sides for easy typemarking and copyediting. Avoid using special
tabs and hard returns to make the pages "pretty." This can cause problems
in the final formatting. If style tags are applied consistently, don't
worry about the way it appears at this stage.
all copy (including subheads) flush with the left margin.
all text elements for each chapter in the same electronic file. For
example, if a chapter contains tables, position them at the end of
the paragraph immediately following their first reference. Boxed text
and equations should also be positioned in their appropriate places
in the text files. If tables are created using a program other than
your word processor-for example, with a spreadsheet program such as
Microsoft Excel-file each table or figure as a separate document.
Type a reference on a separate line after the paragraph containing
the table's first reference. Use a series of asterisks so that table
references can be located easily:
1-1 goes here*****
the same referencing convention for figures, but use a series of parentheses
instead to call out the reference:
(((Fig. 2-1 goes here)))
setting vertical rules in tables. These rules are incompatible with
some composition systems.
footnotes, references, and captions at the end of each chapter-not
at the bottom of each page (unless you are typing directly into FrameMaker).
Some word-processing programs support automatic footnote-numbering
features that may create problems during page makeup, so speak to
your editor about the most suitable way for you to prepare footnotes.
equations on a separate line, with one line space above and below.
Equation references should be in parentheses, flush with the right
using the indent feature in your software. Avoid indenting with the
space bar or with tabs. Other indented elements, such as extracts,
can also be set using paragraph formatting. Do not set vertical rules
next to extracts. Do not add double spacing after end punctuation.
Also, do not add extra returns between paragraph elements. Extra tabs,
spaces, and returns must be removed manually when files are brought
into page layout programs.
all mathematical symbols (including Greek characters, superiors, and
inferiors) in your electronic files. Do not write symbols on the printout
of your manuscript. Type fractions using full size characters separated
by a slash mark, e.g., 1/2, 3/4, and so forth. Set em dashes as double
hyphens or use the em dash character in your text typeface. Allow
no space on either side of em dashes.
all files for errors that may have been missed.
all last minute changes to the electronic manuscript before submission,
and provide a clean printout. Do not write additional changes on the
printout. The electronic file is now the "real" manuscript.
Electronic Manuscript Disks
the most updated version of each chapter (as well as front matter
and appendices) as a separate file on disk or tape. Use a consistent
naming convention that clearly indicates the content of your files,
such as "Chap. 1," "Chap. 2," "Front matter," "Append. A." Avoid using
file-compressing software, unless you can also provide us with the
means to decompress your files.
each disk with the date, author's name, title of the book, summary
of the disk's contents (e.g., Chapters 1-4), hardware and software
(including version) used.
a double-spaced printout of your manuscript that includes any last
minute changes you made. This printout will be used for copy editing
and page makeup, so it is important that it matches the contents of
the corresponding electronic files exactly. Make sure that the type
on the printout is dark and easy to read, since the manuscript passes
through many hands during production. If you can, use a letter-quality
or laser printer, rather than a dot matrix printer which may not be
as easy to read.
backup copies of all files, and a copy of the printout.
When you open a book-if you open books in the orthodox way-the first
thing you see is the "front matter," a publisher's term for everything
preceding the text proper. Front matter may include the following:
half title Series page (if book is in a series)
of illustrations (optional)
of tables (optional)
(if not part of text)
supply the title page, dedication, table of contents, lists of illustrations
and tables, foreword, and preface. Naturally you won't be able to prepare
all this material in final form until you have completed your manuscript
but prepare it then and include it when you send us your manuscript.
A manuscript with title page, detailed table of contents, and preface,
all in good order, gets off to a much better and faster start in our
editorial offices. Send us two copies of the front matter-one for the
page-makeup operator and one for editorial and production purposes.
a list of illustrations and a list of tables with your manuscript to
serve as checklists for editorial purposes. Generally it is unnecessary
to include these in the book-the test is whether a reader would be likely
to refer to a table or illustration independently of its context. If
the lists are not to appear in the book, mark them "Do not set in type."
Include on the manuscript title page: (1) the title of the book and
subtitle, if any; (2) your name, exactly as you want it to appear in
print; and (3) your academic or business affiliations.
We prepare the copyright page for your book. This page contains, in
addition to the year of publication and other pertinent information,
"cataloging in publication" data. These data are supplied by the Library
of Congress under its Cataloging in Publication procedure and are based
on information about your book sent to them by Prentice Hall. By having
these data printed on the copyright page, it is possible for librarians
to catalog your book immediately without having to wait for a catalog
card from the Library of Congress.
Be sure to include a detailed table of contents with your manuscript.
Its organization should correspond with the system of headings used
throughout the text. Our Book Editorial-Production Department will decide
on the coverage and typographical arrangement of the table of contents
as it is to appear in the book. Do not provide page numbers as they
are not yet final, unless you are providing us with camera copy.
A foreword, when used, is usually written by someone other than the
author. If the author writes the foreword, it is used in place of a
The effective preface is clear, crisp, and direct. Every word is packed
with meaning. It is true that some readers skip the preface; it is also
true that others, particularly teachers, reviewers, and buyers for bookstores,
read it carefully and take from it their first impressions of the interest
and usefulness of the book. First impressions are important, as every
salesperson knows; the "sales appeal" of the preface can have a real
effect on the promotion of your book. The preface may also form the
bases for other publicity materials.
begin your preface with the statement that the book "fills a long-felt
need." Thousands of other books have said that. And don't start out
with a long account of why the book was written; get down to facts.
Tell your readers what the book is about and point out the features
that will make them want to read it. Explain the purpose of the book,
its scope, and the plan on which it has been written.
a book written as a text has a wider appeal than the author may realize.
Don't only address readers as students. If professionals would find
the book useful, state why. Also, include information on ancillaries
or web sites, if appropriate. Keep your preface short-three to five
manuscript pages at most. Remember that a short preface stands a better
chance of being read than a long one.
are usually made at the end of the preface, but if there are a great
many of them, list them in a separate section.
Electronic manuscript preparation often allows you to create cross-references
within the computer files. This can save time and increase accuracy,
but it must be done carefully to avoid creating "short circuits" in
the reference system.
of all, make sure that you have settled on a firm file-naming convention.
If you change the file names, you may make it impossible for the computer
to locate references to material in other chapters. If you are "recycling"
material that has been used in other computer documents, check all cross-references
to make sure they are still needed and accurate.
to be conservative in your use of electronic cross-references. Although
they can be an extremely useful way of fine-tuning a document, they
introduce numerous opportunities for error, and can swell the size of
electronic files, making their manipulation unwieldy. Before making
a specific page reference, ask yourself whether it would serve just
as well to say something like "see Chapter 7 for more information."
especially careful to verify all electronic cross-references when you
are making revisions to an existing manuscript. Don't leave dangling
references to items that are no longer part of the text.
For an electronic manuscript, double space and indent extracts to set
them off from the rest of the text. In addition to lists, examples,
problems, and other material subordinate to the text, quotations of
over five lines should be marked for smaller type. Omit the outside
quotation marks and change inside quotes, if any, from single to double.
The main purpose of footnoting is to provide complete data in consistent
form. There are many systems; the one we recommend for clarity and completeness
is illustrated here. Follow this order of items in a reference to a
book: (a) name of author (or translator, editor, compiler) as it appears
on the title page, with first name first; (b) chapter title, if needed;
(c) title of book and subtitle, if any; (d) edition, if other than the
first; (e) city of publication; (f) name of publisher, exactly as it
appears on the title page of the book; (g) date of publication; (h)
chapter or page of book referred to.
If a bibliography is necessary, it should be highly selective, and possibly
broken down by subject. An exhaustive bibliography often only confuses
the reader; a carefully selected list of books, with brief notes on
content or level of treatment, is much more likely to encourage outside
reading. It should not include out-of-print or out-of-date titles that
have been superseded unless they are indispensable.
short bibliography may follow each chapter, or a complete one may appear
at the end of the book. The references may be listed in straight alphabetical
order or, in a long bibliography, first grouped by subject and then
alphabetized. The order of items within a bibliographical reference
is the same as in a footnote, with two exceptions: (1) the name of the
author is given with last name first (if there are two or more authors,
only the first author's name is inverted); (2) when book volume or chapter
or page references are given, these follow the title (and edition, when
given), instead of appearing at the end of the reference.
Each time you insert a table in your manuscript, ask yourself first
whether it is really necessary. Often, of course, it is. A table may
be the only way to present certain information essential to the text.
One drawback of tabular material is that readers tend to skip it because
it is an interruption. If you can summarize the content of a table in
the text or show it in a graph in such a way that it can be grasped
at a glance, the reader is more likely to absorb it. Furthermore, you
will have saved valuable space in your book. Plan each table carefully
for maximum effectiveness and clarity. Keep it simple by arranging the
stub and the column headings so that there is no duplication of entries
and so that all entries in a row or column are presented in comparable
using a word-processing program to keyboard your manuscript, position
tables in the appropriate place in the chapter file. Check with your
editor to see if your word processor's table editor will be compatible
with the layout software. Try to keep table styles simple (minimal ruling,
avoid shading) and use a uniform style for all tables in the book.
symbols (*, , à, ¤, ||, ¦) or superior letters (a, b, c), to mark footnotes
to a table and place these notes directly under the table. In the text
refer to the table by number. Don't say, for example, "see the table
above," because the compositor, when making up the book pages, may have
to place the table below the reference or on nearby page. Number tables
with Arabic figures, using the compound system-that is, using two numbers,
the first representing the chapter number. (Thus the first table in
Chapter 3 would be Table 3-1.) Every table should be numbered and the
use of table title should be consistent throughout the book.
Questions or problems are usually grouped after each chapter. These
should never be a postscript, a hurried addition on which little time
or thought is spent. They should be planned as carefully as the text
itself. Questions should not be too obvious, a mere rephrasing of the
text in the interrogative. The best ones are those requiring readers
to apply what they have learned. Make sure problems are graded in difficulty,
proceeding from the easy to the more difficult. Check them as carefully
as a good mystery writer checks the solution to a crime to be sure they
do not call for data the reader has not been given. If answers or solutions
are to be provided, please consult us about whether it would be better
to put them in an appendix or to publish them separately. This decision
should be made before your manuscript is submitted. When answers are
supplied, check them with the greatest of care. Errors, even trivial
ones, undermine the reader's confidence in the book and are a source
of embarrassment both to you and to us.
An appendix is the customary place for important supplementary material-tables,
charts, documents, forms-that would interrupt the text or that is referred
to at widely separated points. But it should pull its weight in the
book; it should not be a collection of afterthoughts, and it should
not contain material that is easily available elsewhere. Keyboard the
appendix double-spaced, full-measure.
A glossary is sometimes the best solution to the problem of specialized
terms. Brief, precise definitions arranged in alphabetical order allow
the author to use exact language in discussing a specialized subject
without stopping to define each term. The glossary enables the reader
to refer to a definition easily and quickly without having to turn back
through the text.
Indexing is covered in detail in the next section, "Workflow
Once You Submit Your Final Manuscript: The Index".
Number the pages of manuscript consecutively, beginning with the first
page of text and continuing through the last page of the appendix, including
all table pages. Number separately the front matter pages in small roman
numerals (i, ii, and so forth). Be sure to reset to page 1 after the
front matter. If the book is to be divided into parts, be sure that
part-title pages are included in the manuscript proper and numbered
along with it. Also, be sure that the titles of the parts are indicated
in the table of contents. Costly repaging may be necessary if you discover,
after your book has been paged, that part titles have been omitted.
If in doubt about the numbering schemes, consult The
Chicago Manual of Style.
Many of the problems of co-authorship are the same ones that you have
to face and solve when you have written a book by yourself. But multiple
authorship presents the additional problem of reaching solutions that
are acceptable to all the co-authors without time-consuming debate.
Communication and agreement, then, become paramount. Ideally, the lead
author (or editor, or whoever is responsible for your project) will
arrange a meeting of all the contributors before work on individual
sections is begun. If such a meeting is impossible, the senior author
will make other plans to see that each contributor understands his or
her role in the project. It is always preferable, after work has begun
on the book, for one author to be generally vested with the authority
to make decisions and resolve problems about the entire book; the need
for extended cross-communication is then greatly reduced. (After your
book has gone into production, this decision-making power is even more
urgent because schedules allow no time for controversy. Agreement is
lead author should give particular attention at the inception of the
book to such matters as a detailed outline, the style of writing (a
sample chapter by the senior author will help establish the tone), the
length of individual contributions (a very important point and one in
which the contract should be kept firmly in mind), the writing time
schedule, and the need for and nature of illustrative materials.
we have media accompanying a book, or even a book accompanying the media.
While this is a very important feature in many of our titles (one that
you must discuss with your editor early in the process and certainly before
the manuscript is submitted to production), it is often one of the items
put off for last and given the least amount of attention. This is a serious
mistake, as a delay in a CD or disk can seriously affect the schedule
and marketability of a project. If you are in the process of creating
a mastered CD, you may find the following items useful.
software to create cross-platform CD-ROMs is getting better every day.
Today there are just a few premastering software packages that can create
cross-platform CDs and preserve every feature of existing computing
environments. These CDs can be accessible in the native environment
of Windows (3.1, 95, and NT), Macintosh, and Unix systems (many flavors).
The formats we use are:
PC: ISO 9660
ISO 9660 with Rock Ridge Extensions
are in the process of evaluating new generations of premastering software
packages as an on-going R&D process, so we can continually be on top
of the technology and upgrade our systems, as well as making sure that
our vendors do the same.
may find these tips helpful in putting together your materials:
DOS-compatible 8.3 naming convention for all filenames regardless
only capital letters for file and directory names, including links
inside HTML documents
only these filename characters: 0-9, A-Z, _
names cannot have extensions
should have a maximum 8-level deep hierarchy
sure that the number of files within directories is no more than 50-100
up logical, easy to understand file and folder/directory names
proper file type extensions - ie, mov, avi, wav, pct, tif, bmp, eps,
jpg, gif, htm, etc.
complete documentation of the files and their organization.
you have questions while you are getting the materials together be sure
to contact your editor or production manager.
before you send us the manuscript, check it against this list. It will
save you time, correspondence, and probably money later on.
the final printout carefully to check on organization and to catch
any typing errors or omissions. Using a spell checker can greatly
reduce the possibility of typographical errors getting into print.
Even when you have used electronic controls, it is still advisable
to read over a hard copy. Some problems are less noticeable on the
screen and spell check options do not pick up all instances of incorrect
spelling; i.e., a spell checker would not pick up "fro" if you really
want "for" because both words exist.
sure that all pages are accounted for and are in proper sequence and
that all inserts have been numbered and their position noted in the
the presence and numbering of all tables, illustrations, footnotes,
and so on, with great care. A mistake here or insertions and deletions
after the manuscript is in pages may involve considerable time and
the correctness of all cross references. Numbered sequences like tables
and illustrations should be referred to by number, but a cross reference
to another page of the manuscript should read "see page 000." The
ciphers will call attention to the fact that the correct book page
number must be inserted after the book has been made up into pages.
If a manuscript page number is used, the fact that it must later be
changed to a book page may escape everyone's notice. Note that a cross
reference to a chapter and section or topic will frequently suffice.
If your cross references are tagged, verify them on-line. Be sure
they have been generated from the most up to date version of the manuscript.
Remember that changes to one chapter may affect cross references in
sure that all necessary permissions for quoted matter or for illustrations
have been secured and send the letters of permission to us in a separate
package at the time you send us the manuscript. If the permissions
have not been completed, send in the unsigned copies (pink copies)
until the final completed permissions are on hand.
sure to retain copies of all materials.
the Manuscript and lllustrations
your manuscript carefully. Put disks in disk mailers, and secure them
so that they do not move around during shipping. Include your return address
on the label. Mail your original manuscript to us via registered first
class, Federal Express, or UPS-some way that is traceable. As a precaution
against loss of both manuscripts in transit, send one of your two copies
in a separate package. Send your permissions file with the original manuscript.
The packages should be addressed to the attention of the editor with whom
you negotiated when you contracted to write the book.
you submit art conventionally, keep illustrations flat-except for very
large drawings, which may be rolled and slipped in a cardboard tube-and
protect them with heavy cardboard.
contract for a book always contains a deadline-the date on which author
and publisher agree that the manuscript is to be delivered in final form.
Meeting the deadline is VERY important to the success of a book. It is
set to enable a book to be published at the most favorable time. No matter
how good a book is, if it appears at an unfavorable time, the greater
part of its first year's sale may be lost. If delivery of a manuscript
is delayed significantly, the market may begin to shift before the book
can be published; if it is very late, it is possible for its sales potential
to be seriously affected. Please do your very best to meet the contract
deadline. As always, communicate any delays to your editor.