TECH AUTHOR GUIDE #2
 
 
The Editorial Staff
 
Content Preparation
 
Workflow Once You Submit Your Final Manuscript
 
The Technical Manuscript
 
Illustrations
 
Revisions
 
Checklist (MS-Word 77k)
 
 adobe icon PDF file (211k)
 
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MORE AUTHOR GUIDES

General Author Guide
For higher education authors, this general guide provides in-depth information on how to submit a proposal, an overview of the Prentice Hall production environment, and compositor's guidelines. Includes link to an online submission form.
 
Technical Author Guide #1
For computer science and engineering authors who WILL NOT be providing Prentice Hall with camera-ready copy.
 
Non-Technical Author Guide #1
Covers the entire workflow cycle, from submissions of your manuscript to final revisions and publication. For PTR authors NOT providing Prentice Hall with camera-ready copy.
 
Non-Technical Author Guide #2
For PTR authors who WILL be providing Prentice Hall with camera-ready copy.
 
Technical Author Guide #2
 FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS INCLUDING CAMERA-READY COPY

Illustrations
   

When a book is to be illustrated, the author and the publisher are presented with three important considerations: procurement, reproduction, and cost of artwork. The selling price of a book is, in large part, determined by its manufacturing cost. In determining which illustrations to use, a number of facts should be considered. Will a particular illustration contribute enough to the book to be worth the additional expense? If it will, it should be used, but it should be worth the proverbial thousand words. Acquiring a picture or drawing and photographing it for reproduction costs much more than drawing the art yourself with graphics software or having type set that will occupy the same space. Illustrations also add to the length of the book and consequently increase the cost of paper, printing, and binding.

All this is not meant to discourage illustration, but only to encourage careful selection-a chart, a picture, a diagram may do the work of several pages of description and also add greatly to the sales appeal of your book. By all means, however, cut out illustrations that do not relate to the text. Your book will have a greater chance of success without them.

Bear in mind, incidentally, that today's books have a sophisticated, worldwide audience. Try to draw upon people of all races and colors for your subjects. Use illustrations representative of other parts of the world-not just the United States-if they are otherwise suitable.

At the time you start work on your manuscript, discuss with us the question of whether your book requires illustrations and, if so, how extensively they should be used and how they will be provided. Note, too, that other books in the field may provide some guidance as to the nature and extent of illustrations necessary or desirable.


Gathering Illustrations
Once it is determined that your book needs illustrations, the next questions are: where do you find them and how do you choose them?

You, of course, are the best judge of what is suitable illustration material for your book-whether a photograph, a chart, a graph, or a drawing most clearly expresses what you wish to convey in an instance. Our advice is to start early and to explore your field and your sources thoroughly so that your ultimate choices are as well considered as the words of your manuscript. All too often, an illustration is chosen as an afterthought, conveniently picked from a ready source or sketched in an offhand manner. Again, we urge you to consult with us if you have any questions about what would be suitable illustrative material.

Our Art Department is always glad to suggest sources of artwork and to help you judge the quality of the work done and the reasonableness of the fees charged for it. In fact, if you are going to purchase artwork, YOU MUST SUBMIT SAMPLES or other indications of what you propose to use before spending time and money in obtaining what may be unsatisfactory art. This is especially true if you are planning to draft the art yourself. There is no way we can overemphasize the need for you to submit samples before producing more than a handful of pieces of art. We need to discuss the software program you are planning on using, as well as the different ways of saving the files to make sure that they are usable.

If you are planning on using art that is not new, possibly from a source other than yourself, you must secure written permission from the source to reproduce the illustration (see our section on permissions elsewhere in this Guide). Be certain to supply a credit or courtesy line, however, for all such illustrations, whether or not permission is required.


Preparing Illustrations
Illustrations in a book are one of three types. The first type is the line drawing, which consists only of lines or of areas of solid black or white and areas of shading consisting of uniform patterns of dots, squares or other lines. Unshaded drawings, charts, and graphs are examples of line illustrations. The second type is the halftone, which reproduces gradations of shading or tone between black and white, found, for instance, in photographs. A third type is a screen capture-very similar to the halftone in appearance. These are captures of an image that is on your computer screen.

Line Drawings
Artistic worth alone is not a sufficient criterion for judging whether a line drawing is suitable for reproduction. The fine and feathery pencil strokes of a Renaissance master may be impossible to reproduce by ordinary printing methods. It is extremely important that an artist understand how the materials and processes of mechanical production affect the preparation of illustrations. Therefore, if you plan to have drawings prepared, be sure to submit samples to your Production Manager for approval or criticism. If you prefer, we will be glad to arrange for the services of a professional artist who will render finished drawings from your detailed sketches. We will submit one or two samples of finished artwork for your approval before going ahead with the job, depending on the type and difficulty of the art. As drawings are finished, we will send you copies for checking before we release them for reproduction. These should be checked with care to ensure that all details, labeling, and figure identifications ("Fig. 1-4") are correct. The copies must then be returned promptly with any changes.

Preparing Electronic Art
Line drawings can be prepared with a variety of illustration programs including Adobe Illustrator and CorelDraw, although there are plenty of others on the market that are also good. Our preference is that you use Adobe Illustrator. Some word-processing packages also have drawing packages built into them that may be used. Make sure you check with us before you draft more than a handful of illustrations. Provide printed and digital samples for testing as arranged with your editor or production manager. Supply 3-4 samples of each type of graphic. As you create your art, follow these guidelines:

  1. All figures should be proportional in size. Similar elements in different drawings should be approximately the same size. Art sizes vary depending on a book's trim size, so check with your editor for maximum width and height guidelines.

  2. All figures must be submitted final size. Check with your editor about your type page, but your art should fit within a 5 x 8" space.

  3. All type should be cap and lower case (sentence style), set in the same typeface throughout. A sans serif typeface, such as Helvetica or Univers is preferred. All type, including headings & callouts, must be 9 pt., final size. You MUST USE ADOBE PS fonts only. Do not boldface, italicize or capitalize to accentuate type. If your art contains headings of varying sizes, ask your editor or production manager for more customized instructions. If your art labels are to be consistent with equations and text using italics you should be consistent in style.

  4. Produce figures in black and white only, unless otherwise specified. If your black and white book uses 4-color screen captures, check to see that the black and white image displays all the detail you need. Make sure that you submit samples early so that the Art Production Manager can advise you if you need to change your screen colors or save as grayscale.

  5. Use simple fill patterns or 20% and 40% gray tints to show shading for black and white books. Do not use tints darker than 40% or colored tints.

  6. Draw rules 1/2 pt. or 1 pt. wide. Lines in graphs should be heavier than outside lines. Style should be consistent throughout.

  7. Arrowheads and leaders should be proportional in size with type, and should be consistent throughout.

  8. Do not include figure numbers or other identifying information in the illustrations, but use this information when naming the files. Name the files with the actual figure number and use the appropriate extension (i.e., Fig_2-3.eps).

  9. Carefully proofread art for consistency and typographical errors.

  10. Save final files as EPS (Encapsulated PostScript), TIFF, or PICT. TIF & PICT formats are bitmapped and okay for screen shots, but you may not be happy with the quality for line art. For that reason, we prefer to work with EPS files (except in the case of screen shots-which should be saved as tiff, bmp, gif, or pict. Send us the application files as well as the EPS files. We may need to make changes to art, and for that we must have the original art files in a program we can work with (such as Adobe Illustrator, Aldus Freehand, CorelDraw, or Canvas).

Preparing Art Disks
Prepare each piece of art as a separate document. Identify each figure by following a consistent file-naming convention, such as Fig. 1-1, Fig. 1-2.

If you integrate art with text in a page-makeup program, you will need to also supply us with the original art files separately, especially if the art was created with a different program. For example, if art is created with Adobe Illustrator and EPS files imported into Quark XPress or FrameMaker, we will need the Illustrator files as well as the Quark and Frame documents.

When art is included with text in FrameMaker files, be sure that the art is in an anchored frame, anchored in the correct position in the text. Otherwise, even minor reformatting may cause the illustration to be separated from the appropriate text. FrameMaker will allow art frames to overlap text frames and vice versa. Be especially careful about the placement of frames to one side of text copy, since reformatting may cause overlaps or leave gaps.

Avoid using file-compressing software, unless you can also provide us with the means to decompress your files.

Unless you are providing us with "camera ready" files, keep the art on disks separate from those containing text files. Label each disk with the author's name, title of book, hardware and software (include version), all typefaces used (for example, you might use Helvetica for type and Symbol for Greek characters or math symbols), and the format files are saved in. Or include all the information but for the author, title, and hardware on a readme file on the disk.

Include a printout of each piece of art with the following information written on it: author's name, title of book, figure number, hardware and software (with version number).

Don't use TrueType. You MUST USE ADOBE PS fonts only.

Halftones
A satisfactory halftone can be made from an original photograph, wash drawing, airbrush drawing, or slide and sometimes from another printed picture. A halftone simulates the gradations of tone in a photograph.

The method of reproducing this type of art also makes it inevitable that some of the detail of the original will be lost. Therefore it is important that the original copy be the best you can find. Select clear, sharp, glossy photographs with good tonal contrast. Be sure that details are as distinct as the larger elements of the picture. Avoid dull or matte finish prints, which are harder to reproduce satisfactorily.

Select your pictures with an eye to composition and dramatic emphasis on important details; a good picture tells a story and elicits a response from the reader. Study each picture carefully to determine whether cropping-eliminating unimportant parts at the top, bottom, or sides of a picture-would improve its effectiveness. Indicate lightly the areas to be cropped on a tissue overlay on the illustration; never mark the photograph or artwork itself or cut it to size.

If any lettering, arrows, or numbers are to be added to the face of the photograph or if any special instructions should accompany it, indicate them on a tissue overlay. Never make any mark on the face of the photograph itself. Write the figure number in the margin of the picture, or if there is no room, very lightly on the back. Even the slightest dent marks from the back will show through onto the surface of the print and will appear in the reproduction, as will smudges, cracks, and scratches caused by careless handling. Do not mount photographs and never paste, clip, or otherwise insert them in the manuscript or use clips to fasten them together-the mark of a paper clip can ruin a photograph.

Capturing Screenshots using HiJaak
HiJaak is one of the most popular programs for capturing screen shots. The guidelines here are specific to this piece of software, however, most of the others work in a very similar fashion. If you have another program, please save a few images and send them in for testing by our production department.

  1. Keep in mind that all screen shots should be captured at the same size so that we have a uniform and consistent look throughout your book.

  2. Capture screen images at same size-100% only.
  3. Select grayscale or B&W mode. Use Index or RGB color for color files (or if you cannot change the setting to grayscale or B&W). In the Windows control panel be sure to specify the color setting of screen capture as blue or the Windows default. If other colors are selected, moire patterns may develop.

  4. Select 72 dpi for resolution-it is important that you do not change this setting or it will affect the physical size of the screen.

  5. Select file format of pict, tiff, bmp, or eps.

  6. Do not change any size settings- the art will be sized during page makeup.

Figure Numbers and Captions
Number the illustrations with Arabic figures consecutively throughout each chapter, using the compound system described earlier in this Guide. It is best to include in a single sequence all the types of illustrations photographs, line drawings, graphs, charts, and screen captures.

Some books require no figure numbers for the illustrations, but even then a temporary number should be assigned to each of them and keyed into the manuscript to enable the production editor to identify the illustrations and place them correctly if you are not already doing so yourself.

If, as you are keyboarding the manuscript and if we are to make pages later, you know where the figures are to go, type, for instance, (((Fig. 3-4 here))) on the proper page on a separate line, centered from left to right. Otherwise, when the typing is completed, make a marginal note (circled) on the manuscript page to show where each illustration is to be placed.

Generate a list of captions for each chapter and place the list at the end of each chapter file, identifying captions by figure number or temporary identification number and including any necessary credits. Be sure that spelling, symbols, capitalization, and so forth, are consistent with the style used in the text. This, of course, if we are making final pages here.


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