
Technical
Author Guide #2 FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS INCLUDING CAMERAREADY COPY The Technical Manuscript 



A manuscript is described as "technical" to a greater or lesser extent according to the amount of material it contains that is other than straight prose. Typesetting material in chemistry, engineering, mathematics, physics, or computer science obviously differs from typesetting a book on English literature. Whereas the latter is straight prose, an engineering book contains equations, tables, and special symbols, all of which require precise arrangement on the book page for clarity. The vertical and horizontal spacing of each character in a complex equation must be precise; the position of superscripts and subscripts must be accurate. Consequently, we must have a method of composing this technical material that gives us the necessary control over each piece of type. The Metric System Before we begin our survey of the preparation of the technical manuscript, we would like to remind authors who are writing in scientific disciplines of the possibility of international sales. They may wish to use metrics (English units), as well so as to conform to usage elsewhere in the world. Since metric is a very general term, we recommend that authors adopt the International System of Units (SI) as the accepted metric system and terminology to be used. A basic reference for suggested usage is The International System of Units (SI), July, 1974, National Bureau of Standards, Special Publication 330, available in PDF format from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. See also Cassell's Dictionary of Weights and Measures. Always consult your editor about the use of metric units in your book before you begin preparation of the manuscript.
Illustrations The information in this chapter will help you deal with the many editorial problems presented by the technical manuscript. It is equally important that you be knowledgeable about the preparation of artwork and discriminating in the choice of photographs for your book. For this reason we urge you to read the next section, Illustrations, with care. Uniformity
in Numbering Various Elements Capitalization,
Spelling, Hyphenation
Never abbreviate these or any other terms at the beginning of a sentence; spell out the word in such instances. Avoid using page numbers for references to these elements; instead refer to a specific table, equation, or section. Many word processors and page makeup programs can automate this numbering process; take advantage of the feature if you can. The use of page numbers delays return of page proofs to the compositor until missing references can be supplied. Check all cross references carefully before submitting your manuscript to be sure the numbering is correct. Webster's New World Dictionary is our authority for spelling, hyphenation, and capitalization. Where two spellings are given for a word, use the first form shown. Terms consisting of a capital letter and a noun are hyphenated only when they are used as attributive adjectives: for example, "I beam" but "Ibeam structure"; "X ray" but "Xray tube." Fractions are hyphenated: "a twothirds balance," "twothirds of those present." Do not use a hyphen in compounds containing an adverb ending in ly, such as "evenly spaced intervals."
Preparing and Marking Copy Italics Apply italics to text in electronic files for a term being defined, for a term introduced by called or known (i.e., "is called the quotient," "is known as factoring"), or for emphasis of a word, a phrase, or a sentence. To maintain emphasis, use italics sparingly. All letter symbols (with the exceptions noted here) used in mathematical equations or used to designate angles, curves, coordinate points, and so forth, are set in italics. Do not underscore letter symbols for italics. Our copy editors will do this throughout your manuscript for any you have missed. Note that in italic context, letter symbols are also set in italics, but all numerals and all abbreviations are set in roman (ie, "Solve the equation for 2x  2y."). All abbreviations of chemical elements and compounds are set in roman. Boldface
Do not indiscriminately apply bold or use boldface underscoring for an entire equation.
When you are emphasizing the importance of an equation, bold only letter symbols, numerals, words, and abbreviations. Set operation signs and superscripts and subscripts lightface (unless the superscripts or subscripts contain a character such as a vector letter that must be set boldface).
Where vector dots or cross products appear, set bold "times" signs as well as the vector letters.
If boldface roman and boldface italic symbols must be used, set them in your electronic file.
Wherever a center dot is used to indicate multiplication, center it; do not put it in the decimalpoint position.
Monospace
Fonts Identification
of Symbols Boldface
Greek Accented
Characters Special
Characters Spacing
Use a single space before and after all abbreviations:
Use
a single space before and after integration and summation and capital
pi signs. Type limits tight at the immediate right of integration signs
and above and below summation and capital pi signs: Use
a single space before and after all differential terms, whether they
are adjacent to other letter symbols or numerals, before or after parentheses
or other enclosing signs, or before or after fractions: However, when differentials appear as limits or as superscripts or subscripts, type them tight. Matrices When we typemark columns of matrices, we normally use a space equal to the width of the capital M in the type size being used (em space) to separate the columns. If any symbols precede or follow the matrix, center them on the overall depth of the matrix. Include the punctuation that follows the matrix if you have used punctuation for centered matter. Short
Equations Whether equations are short or long, if they must appear one below the other, doublespace them. Superscripts
and Subscripts Exponential
e and "exp" Punctuation
of Centered Equations and Formulas
In the last example note that short equations are placed side by side on the same line to conserve space and that a comma is used after all but the last equation. If you were omitting terminal punctuation, you would still use the commas after all but the last in a series of short equations on the same line. Fractions:
Solidus vs. Builtup
Solidus fractions provide a more compact and attractive presentation:
In centered expressions we recommend use of the builtup fraction throughout; if you prefer the solidus fraction in centered matter, use enclosing signs in the conventional order of { [ ( ) ] } where necessary. Abbreviations
Compound
Abbreviations
Greek Alphabet The capital and lowercase forms of the Greek alphabet are shown in the following table; the letters at the left in each column are capitals: Boldface Greek In the example below, we have omitted those letters that are similar to English forms. Boldface Greek is different in appearance from lightface Greek.
Footnotes and Bibliography One last matter that we want to bring to your attention is the importance of uniformity of style in your documentation of the text and in your presentation of bibliographic material. The form for footnotes and the form for bibliography should be clear, concise, complete, and consistent.


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