Bridge Substructure and Foundation Design, 1/e
Petros P. Xanthakos, Consulting Engineer, Great Falls, Virginia
Published March, 1998 by Prentice Hall PTR (ECS Professional)
Copyright 1995, 864 pp.
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Geotechnical Engineering (Advanced)-Civil & Environmental Engineering
Structural Engineering (Advanced)-Civil & Environmental Engineering
Helps engineers optimize both structural reliability and economy by
presenting both traditional allowable stress design concepts and newer,
statistically-based load and resistance factor methodologies.
book conforms to the latest edition (1992) of the standard
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
Bridge Specifications, and the 1994 LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.
presents criteria for selecting substructure and foundation types
according to functions, structural requirements and cost.
explains the development of loads and force effects, provides
commentary and presents examples.
explains when to use allowable stress design methods and when to
use load and resistance factor methodology.
explains and illustrates the use of small deflection theories,
moment magnification techniques, and stress-strain relationships.
includes extensive illustration and references.
1. Introduction and General Principles.
Bridge Engineering and Aesthetics. Pier Types. Abutment Types.
Abutment Walls. Foundation Types. Subsurface Exploration and Foundation
Investigations. Specifications and Standards. Cost Correlation,
Superstructure versus Substructure. Design Example 1-1. References.
2. Loads and Loading Groups.
General Considerations. Permanent Loads. Transient Loads. Force
Effects from Superimposed Deformations. Forces on Substructure. Earthquake
Effects. Transfer of Loads from Superstructure to Substructure. Distribution
of Longitudinal Forces to Fixed and Expansion Piers. Numerical Examples.
Load Combinations and Load Factors. Case Study, Ice Load on Bridges.
3. Methods Of Analysis and Design.
General Principles. Service Load Design Method (Allowable Stress
Design, ASD). Reliability and Uncertainty in Design. Alternate Approach to
Limit States. AASHTO Strength Design Method, Reinforced Concrete Structures.
LRFD Principles of Strength Design (AASHTO, 1994 Specifications). Design for
Thermal Effects. Shrinkage and Creep (LRFD Specifications). Design for
Vessel Collision. Basic Philosophy of Seismic Design. Requirements of
Reinforced Concrete in Seismic Design. Tolerable Differential Movement and
Settlement of Bridges. Design Example 3-1, Settlement. Case Study, Forces
Induced by Settlement. Design Requirements for Bridges in Waterways.
4. Piers For Conventional Bridges.
Pier Types. Criteria for Pier Selection. Loads and Moments on
Piers: End Conditions. Effect of Temperature Change and Shrinkage. Seismic
Design Considerations for Piers and Columns. Structural Capacity under
Combined Axial Compression and Bending. Section Analysis. Structural
Capacity of Composite Columns. Design Example 4-1: Single Shaft Pier (Load
Factor Design). Design Example 4-2: Hammerhead Pier. Design Example 4-3:
Steel Bent Cap. Design Example 4-4: Steel Bent Cap for Torsional Loading.
General Principles of Pier Frame Analysis. Design Example 4-5: Multiple
Column Pier. Design Example 4-6: Pier Integral with Superstructure. Pier
Trestles. Pier Protection Design Provisions in Navigable Waterways. Design
Example 4-7: Bridge Protection in Waterways. Design Example 4-8: Pier
Stability Under Stream Flow. References.
5. Piers For Special Bridges.
Structural Interaction of Elastic Piers in Multi-Span Arch
Bridges. Towers for Suspension Bridges. Towers and Pylons for Cable-Stayed
Bridges. Piers for Segmental Concrete Bridges. Piers for Movable Bridges.
Supports Integral with Superstructure. References.
6. Wall Systems.
Diaphragm Walls in Traffic Underpasses. Gravity and Semi-Gravity
Walls. Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Prefabricated Modular Walls.
Ground Movement in Excavations. Design Principles of Diaphragm Walls. Design
Principles of Gravity and Semi-Gravity Walls. Commentary on Mechanically
Stabilized Earth Walls. Commentary on Prefabricated Modular Walls. Design
Example 6-1, Traffic Underpass. Design Example 6-2, Anchored Diaphragm Wall.
Design Example 6-3, Stability of Ground-Anchored Wall System. Design Example
6-4, Posttensioned Diaphragm Wall. Seismic Design Requirements of Wall
Top of Abutment Details and Treatment. Pile Bent (Stub) Abutments,
Design Considerations. Closed (Full) Abutments, Design Considerations.
Gravity and Semi-Gravity Abutments, Design Considerations. Abutments on
Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls. Abutments on Modular Systems. Wing
Walls. Abutments for Segmental Bridges. Seismic Design of Abutments. Design
Example 7-1, Pile Bent Abutments, ASD Method. Design Example 7-2, Full
Abutment. Design Example 7-3, Spill-Through Abutment. Design Example 7-4,
Abutment of a Simple Span. Deck Truss Bridge. Abutments for Arch Bridges.
Abutments for Suspension Bridges. Integral Abutments. Prefabricated Concrete
Factors Affecting Selection of Foundation Type. Footing Types.
Bearing Capacity Theories. Presumptive Bearing Pressures. Bearing Pressures
from Tests. Bearing Resistance of Rock. Failure by Sliding. AASHTO and LRFD
Requirements. Settlement of Footings in Soil, Methods of Analysis.
Settlement of Footings in Rock. Structural Action of Footings. Flexural
Strength of Modified Square Footing, Case Study. Strut-and-Tie Model (LRFD
Specifications). Design Example 8-1, Bearing Capacity by ASD. Design Example
8-2, Settlement of Footings. Design Example 8-3, Footing in Rock. Design
Example 8-4, Bearing Capacity by Strength Design. Design Example 8-5, Load
Factor Design. Design Example 8-6, Strip Footing. Seismic Design
9. Driver Piles.
Soil-Pile Interaction. Pile Types and Selection Criteria. Design
Considerations. Design Approach. Movement and Bearing Resistance at the
Service Limit State. Design of Piles for Axial Load, Structural Capacity.
Design of Piles for Axial Load, Geotechnical Capacity of Single Pile.
Bearing Capacity of Pile Groups. Uplift Considerations. Negative Skin
Friction. Pile Foundations Under Lateral Loads. Structural Capacity of Piles
Subjected to Axial Load and Bending. Design Examples. Bridge Foundations
Without Piles. References.
10. Drilled Shaft Foundations.
Assessment of Construction Methods. Practical Considerations.
Usual Defects and Repairs. AASHTO Requirements. Design Requirements.
Generalized Design Approach. Structural Capacity for Axial Load.
Geotechnical Strength (Bearing Capacity), Axially Loaded Shafts. Bearing
Capacity from Load Tests. Axial Resistance in Rock. Group Action. Safety
Factors for ASD. Settlement Considerations. Negative Skin Resistance
(Downdrag). Uplift Resistance. Drilled Shafts under Lateral Load. Flexural
Analysis, Laterally Loaded Shafts. Design Examples. References.
11. Prismatic and Linear Foundations.
Shapes and Configurations. Construction Considerations. The
Transfer of Axial Load: Basic Concepts. Data from Load Tests. Guidelines for
the Design of Load Bearing Linear and Prismatic Elements. Structural
Capacity for Axial Load. Geotechnical Capacity: Axial Load in Cohesive
Soils. Geotechnical Capacity: Axial Load in Cohesionless Soils. Axial
Resistance in Rock. Group Action. Settlement Considerations. Downdrag and
Uplift. Effects of Lateral Load. Structural Capacity Under Bending and Axial
Load. Design Example 11-1. References.
12. Strengthening and Rehabilitation.
Design Options to Reduce Maintenance and Repair. Procedures for
Detecting Defects and Deterioration. Assessment of Deficiencies of
Substructures Below the Water Line. Repair of Scour Damage. Methods for
Strengthening Substructures. Replacement and Repair Methods. Repair and
Methods to Arrest Concrete Deterioration Below the Water Line. Example of
Inspection Guidelines: Assessment of Underwater Concrete. Example of
Structural Capacity Analysis. Example of Bridge Rehabilitation. References.