(NOTE: Each chapter beings with an Introduction and concludes with a
What This Book is About. Who Should Read This Book? Structure of This
Book. Whose Java? Downloading Example Source. Building the Examples. Setting Up
the Environment. How To Build. A Word About the Examples. Some Conventions. Help
From Fellow Travelers. A Word About Borrowed Words. Acknowledgments.
1. Why JNI?
Virtual Machine, Real Machine. JNI and Binary Compatibility. Memory
Loss. The JNI Solution. Features of the JNI.
2. Hello JNI World.
The Big Picture. The Steps. Identify Native Functionality. Describing
the Interface to the Native Code. Writing the Java Code. Using javac to Generate
Class Files. Using javah to Generate Include Files. Writing Native Code.
Building a Library. Loading and Invoking the native Method. Building and Running
Your Java Application. The Steps in Pictures.
3. Setting Java Variables, Invoking Java Methods.
What Is All This Talk About C and C++? Some of the Basics. Setting
Java Object Data Fields. Native Access to an Objects Own Data Fields. Making It
Happen. Native Access to Another Object's Data Fields. Making It Happen. Getting
a Java Object's Data Fields. Invoking a Java Method. Native Access to an Objects
Own Methods. Native Access to Private Methods of Another Object. Making It
Happen. A Disclaimer of Sorts. Returning a Value From Java Methods. Non-Virtual
Method Invocation. Use of JNI Non-Virtual Functions. Yet More Ways to Call a
4. Native Types, Signatures and Other Details.
Java Types. Java Native Types. Primitive Native Types. Reference
Native Types. Programming Considerations. The jvalue Type. Field and Method
Identifier Types. Method Signatures. Signature and Constructors. Type Signatures
and Data Fields. The JNIEnv Pointer. A Word About Passing Arguments.
5. Objects and Classes.
JNI References. Code Natively, Reference Locally. Coding Globally.
Releasing a Local Reference. A Few More Facts About Native References. JNI
Object Functions. Determining an Object's Class. Creating a New Object Instance.
Using NewObject. Using NewObjectA. Using NewObjectV. Example Object Creation.
Allocating Memory for an Object. Comparing Two References. A Native instanceof.
Testing Class Inheritance Relationship. JNI Class Functions. From Class Name to
Class. From Class to Superclass. From Bytes to Class. A Simple Class Loader. A
Loader Using DefineClass.
6. Arrays and Strings.
JNI Array Functions. Object Arrays. Array of Arrays. Some Output.
Primitive Type Arrays. Creating a Primitive Array. Getting Primitive Array
Elements. Accessing the Entire Array Contents of a Primitive Array. An Example:
Accessing an Entire Array. Accessing a Region of a Primitive Array. JNI String
Functions. UTF-8 String Handling. Creating a New String Object. Unicode String
Throwing Exceptions. Throwing an Exception. Building and Throwing an
Exception. When Does an Exception Get Raised? Catching Exceptions. A Native
Try-Catch. Passing Exceptions to Java. A JNI Stack Trace. General Exception
JNI Synchronization Support. The Producer-Consumer Problem. A Java
Implementation. A JNI Producer-Consumer Implementation. The C++ Product Info
Class. The init Method. C++/Java Object Correspondence. Native Implementation of
Produce Method. Native Implementation of Consume Method. A Native Wait and
Notify. Native Producer-Consumer Output. A Reminder. A Global Reference as Lock.
9. Java and C++.
C++ Legacy Code. The General Strategy. Mirroring Example. The C++
Side. The Java Side. Type Mappings. Object Construction. Finalization. Cloning.
Serialization. The Native Methods. The Registry Interface. Object Construction
and the Registry. Instance Data Access and the Registry. Object Finalization and
the Registry. Object Cloning and the Registry. Serialization and the Registry.
The Registry Implementation. MFC Implementation of ObjMap. Tools.h++
Implementation of ObjMap. Static Variables and Methods. C++ Class Methods.
Public Data Field Access. Java Mirroring at Work 176 An Alternative to the
Registry. Some Other Issues. Multiple Inheritance. C++ Templates.
10. Conversion of C Structures.
The Java Source. The C Adapter Code. POSIX User Database Access. Using
structConverter. Running the C Preprocessor. The structConverter Configuration
File. Running structConverter. The Java Source File. StructConverter Data Type
Conversion. InitFIDs and the static Block. The Adapter Source File. Field ID
Initialization. Adapter Code. Tying It All Together. Another Database Example.
Updating a Booking Record. Generating Just Java. Some Design Considerations. A
Bit More About structConverter.
11. Native Serial I/O.
The portio Package. Using portio. Portio Template Class Files.
Augmenting portio. Portio and POSIX tty. The PosixPortDriver Class. The
PosixPortReader Class. The PosixPortPrivate Class. The POSIX Native Code.
Opening and Closing a Port Using POSIX System Calls. Reading and Writing a Port
Using POSIX System Calls. Using POSIX System Calls flush, sendBreak and purge.
Setting POSIX Device Parameters. Portio and Win32 COM.
12. Running the JVM From a C/C++ Application.
JVM Initialization. Stack and Heap Values. Garbage Collection
Settings. Load Verification Mode. The classpath Field. The properties Field (JDK
1.1.2 and Greater). Application Hooks for the JVM. Invocation API Overview.
invokeMain: Creating a JVM. A Java-enabled Application in Action. Building a
Java-Enabled Application. The Invocation API and Reflection. JNI and Reflection.
Running miniInvoker. A Small Disclaimer. Registering Native Methods. The
JNINativeMethod Structure. Using RegisterNatives. Building for Native Method
Registration. Avoiding Static Libraries.
13. An NT Service Application.
The Service Control Manager. Registering a Service With the SCM. The
Service Process. The Executing Service. Reporting Service Status. The
service_controller Routine. The Java Agent Server. Starting the Java Agent
Server. Stopping the Java Agent Server. Support for Java Agent Creation. The JVM
as Service: Some Considerations. The JVM's Current Working Directory. Displaying
a Frame. Some Common Errors. A Java Agent Service. Overview of a Java Logging
Agent. Source for a Java Logging Agent. Making It Happen.
14. Debugging Native Methods.
What Is It You Are Debugging? JNI Debugging Tips. Microsoft Visual
Studio. The JVM: Starting a Debug Session. Debugging on Solaris. Using dbx.
Debugging With Sun Workshop. When All Else Fails.
15. JDK 1.2 Enhancements to JNI.
Summary of Enhancements. Summary of Additional Functionality. JDK 1.2
JNI Enhancements. JVM Initialization. Improvements to Invocation API Functions.
FindClass Enhancements. New JDK 1.2 JNI Functions. Weak References.
Critical Region String and Array Manipulation. Local Reference
Management. Core Reflection Support. String Character Extraction. New Invocation
API Functionality. Loading and Unloading Notification. Native Library Management
Via Class Loaders.
Appendix A. JNI Reference.
Notation. The Invocation API.
Appendix B. 1.0 Native Methods vs. JNI.
javah Usage. Using javah to Generate 1.0-Style Native Code. Using
javah to Generate JNI Function Prototypes. Include File Requirements. The
Pieces, Side-by-Side. Building Native Libraries. A printString Example. The
Execution Environment. Function Specification and Naming. Data Types. Argument
Handling. Signatures. Accessing Java Data Fields. Accessing Instance Data.
Accessing Class Data. Invoking Methods. Invoking a Java Instance Method.
Invoking a Java Class Method. Creating an Object. Exceptions. String
Manipulation. Arrays. Garbage Collection Issues.