identity management
The comprehensive management and administration of a user's individual profile information, permissions, and privileges across a variety of social settings.26

identity theft
A crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of information, such as Social Security and driver's license numbers, to obtain credit, merchandise, and services in the name of the victim. The victim is often left with a ruined credit history and the time-consuming and complicated task of repairing the financial damages.25

illegally seized evidence
Evidence seized without regard to the principles of due process as described by the Bill of Rights. Most illegally seized evidence is the result of police searches conducted without a proper warrant or of improperly conducted interrogations.

illegal search and seizure
An act in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which reads, "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized."

The use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that an offender will commit future offenses.

inchoate offense
An offense not yet completed. Also, an offense that consists of an action or conduct that is a step toward the intended commission of another offense.

incident-based reporting
Compared with summary reporting, a less restrictive and more expansive method of collecting crime data in which all the analytical elements associated with an offense or arrest are compiled by a central collection agency on an incident-by-incident basis.

included offense
An offense that is made up of elements that are a subset of the elements of another offense having a greater statutory penalty, and the occurrence of which is established by the same evidence or by some portion of the evidence that has been offered to establish the occurrence of the greater offense.

incompetent to stand trial
In criminal proceedings, a finding by a court that as a result of mental illness, defect, or disability, a defendant is incapable of understanding the nature of the charges and proceedings against him or her, of consulting with an attorney, and of aiding in his or her own defense.

indeterminate sentence
A type of sentence to imprisonment in which the commitment, instead of being for a precise length of time, is for a range of time, such as two to five years or five years maximum and zero minimum.

indeterminate sentencing
A model of criminal punishment that encourages rehabilitation through the use of general and relatively unspecific sentences (such as a term of imprisonment of from one to ten years).

index crime
See Crime Index.

A formal, written accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury, alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense, usually a felony.

individual rights
The rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the U.S. Constitution (especially those found in the first ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights). These rights are particularly important to criminal defendants facing formal processing by the criminal justice system.

individual-rights advocate
One who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice.

industrial prison
A correctional model intended to capitalize on the labor of convicts sentenced to confinement.

A formal written accusation submitted to the court by a prosecutor, alleging that a specified person has committed a specific offense.

A minor violation of state statute or local ordinance punishable by a fine or other penalty or by a specified, usually limited, term of incarceration.

The basic facilities, services, and installations that a country needs to function. Transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and institutions that serve the public, including banks, schools, post offices, and prisons, are all part of a country's infrastructure.27

inherent coercion
The tactics used by police interviewers that fall short of physical abuse but that nonetheless pressure suspects to divulge information.

initial appearance
See first appearance.

initial plea
The first plea to a given charge entered in the court record by or for the defendant. The acceptance of an initial plea by the court unambiguously indicates that the arraignment process has been completed. Also called first plea.

insanity defense
A legal defense based on claims of mental illness or mental incapacity.

institutional capacity
The official number of inmates that a confinement or residential facility is or was intended to house.

The first step in decision making regarding a juvenile whose behavior or alleged behavior is in violation of the law or could otherwise cause a juvenile court to assume jurisdiction.

intensive probation supervision (IPS)
A form of probation supervision involving frequent face-to-face contact between the probationer and the probation officer.

The state of mind or attitude with which an act is carried out. Also, the design, resolve, or determination with which a person acts to achieve a certain result.

The interception of drug traffic at the nation's borders. Interdiction is one of the many strategies used to stem the flow of illegal drugs into the United States.

interdisciplinary theory
An approach that integrates a variety of theoretical viewpoints in an attempt to explain crime and violence.

intermediate appellate court
An appellate court whose primary function is to review the judgments of trial courts and the decisions of administrative agencies and whose decisions are, in turn, usually reviewable by a higher appellate court in the same state.

intermediate sanctions
The use of split sentencing, shock probation or parole, shock incarceration, community service, intensive supervision, or home confinement in lieu of other, more traditional, sanctions, such as imprisonment and fines. Also called alternative sanctions.

internal affairs
The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoing involving members of the department.

International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)
An international law enforcement support organization that began operations in 1946 and today has 181 members.

international terrorism
The unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who has some connection to a foreign power, or whose activities transcend national boundaries, against people or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.28

The information-gathering activity of police officers that involves the direct questioning of suspects.

Islamic law
A system of laws, operative in some Arab countries, based on the Muslim religion and especially the holy book of Islam, the Koran.

25. Identity Theft Resource Center website at Accessed April 4, 2002.

26. Adapted from Entrust, Inc., "Secure Identity Management: Challenges, Needs, and Solutions." Web posted at, p. 1. Accessed August 5, 2003.

27. Adapted from Web posted at Accessed January 10, 2003.

28. Adapted from Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI Policy and Guidelines: Counterterrorism. Web posted at Accessed March 4, 2002.

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