a prison designed by Jeremy Bentham which was to be a circular building with cells along the circumference, each clearly visible from a central location staffed by guards.
an example, model, or theory.
schizophrenic individuals who suffer from delusions and hallucinations.
part I offenses
that group of offenses, also called "major offenses" or "index offenses," for which the UCR publishes counts of reported instances, and which consist of murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson.
a variety of strategies in data gathering in which the researcher observes a group by participating, to varying degrees, in the activities of the group.
a relatively informal type of criminal justice case processing which makes use of local community resources rather than requiring traditional forms of official intervention.
an approach to crime control which focuses on effective ways for developing a shared consensus on critical issues which have the potential to seriously affect the quality of life.
a perspective which holds that crime-control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime.
a term which describes the relationship between victim and criminal. Also, the two individuals most involved in the criminal actthe offender and the victim.
the process by which legitimately-manufactured controlled substances are diverted for illicit use.
the study of crime as a social phenomenon that is created through a process of social interaction.
the study of the contents of human consciousness without regard to external conventions nor prior assumptions.
the study of the shape of the head to determine anatomical correlates of human behavior.
a person who uses switched, dialed-access telephone services as objects for exploration and exploitation.
See software piracy.
an analytical approach to social organization which holds that a multiplicity of values and beliefs exist in any complex society, but that most social actors agree on the usefulness of law as a formal means of dispute resolution.
the application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminals.
post-crime victimization or secondary victimization
refers to problems in living which tend to follow from initial victimization.
a brand of criminology which developed following World War II, and which builds upon the tenants inherent in postmodern social thought.
a perspective which holds that the distribution of crime and delinquency within society is to some degree founded upon the consequences which power relationships within the wider society hold for domestic settings, and for the everyday relationships between men, women, and children within the context of family life.
initial deviance often undertaken to deal with transient problems in living.
research characterized by original and direct investigation.
in Marxian theory, the working class.
a crime control strategy which attempts to reduce criminal opportunities by changing people's routine activities, increasing guardianship, or by incapacitating convicted offenders.
See forensic psychiatry.
those derived from the medical sciences, including neurology, and which, like other psychological theories, focus on the individual as the unit of analysis.
those which affect the mind, mental processes, or emotions.
the theory of human psychology founded by Freud on the concepts of the unconscious, resistance, repression, sexuality, and the Oedipus complex.
is a psychiatric approach developed by the Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud which emphasizes the role of personality in human behavior, and which sees deviant behavior as the result of dysfunctional personalities.
the attempt to categorize, understand, and predict, the behavior of certain types of offenders based upon behavioral clues they provide.
those derived from the behavioral sciences and which focus on the individual as the unit of analysis. Psychological theories place the locus of crime causation within the personality of the individual offender.
psychopath or sociopath
a person with a personality disorder, especially one manifested in aggressively antisocial behavior, which is often said to be the result of a poorly developed superego.
the study of pathological mental conditions, that is, mental illness.
a form of mental illness in which sufferers are said to be out of touch with reality.
a form of psychiatric treatment based upon psychoanalytical principles and techniques.
a course of action that government takes in an effort to solve a problem or to achieve an end.
undesirable behavioral consequences likely to decrease the frequency of occurrence of that behavior.
research undertaken simply for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge.