Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


panopticon
a prison designed by Jeremy Bentham which was to be a circular building with cells along the circumference, each clearly visible from a central location staffed by guards.

paradigm
an example, model, or theory.

paranoid schizophrenics
schizophrenic individuals who suffer from delusions and hallucinations.

part I offenses
that group of offenses, also called "major offenses" or "index offenses," for which the UCR publishes counts of reported instances, and which consist of murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson.

participant observation
a variety of strategies in data gathering in which the researcher observes a group by participating, to varying degrees, in the activities of the group.

participatory justice
a relatively informal type of criminal justice case processing which makes use of local community resources rather than requiring traditional forms of official intervention.

peace model
an approach to crime control which focuses on effective ways for developing a shared consensus on critical issues which have the potential to seriously affect the quality of life.

peacemaking criminology
a perspective which holds that crime-control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime.

penal couple
a term which describes the relationship between victim and criminal. Also, the two individuals most involved in the criminal act–the offender and the victim.

pharmaceutical diversion
the process by which legitimately-manufactured controlled substances are diverted for illicit use.

phenomenological criminology
the study of crime as a social phenomenon that is created through a process of social interaction.

phenomenology
the study of the contents of human consciousness without regard to external conventions nor prior assumptions.

phrenology
the study of the shape of the head to determine anatomical correlates of human behavior.

phone phreak
a person who uses switched, dialed-access telephone services as objects for exploration and exploitation.

piracy
See software piracy.

pluralistic perspective
an analytical approach to social organization which holds that a multiplicity of values and beliefs exist in any complex society, but that most social actors agree on the usefulness of law as a formal means of dispute resolution.

positivism
the application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminals.

post-crime victimization or secondary victimization
refers to problems in living which tend to follow from initial victimization.

postmodern criminology
a brand of criminology which developed following World War II, and which builds upon the tenants inherent in postmodern social thought.

power-control theory
a perspective which holds that the distribution of crime and delinquency within society is to some degree founded upon the consequences which power relationships within the wider society hold for domestic settings, and for the everyday relationships between men, women, and children within the context of family life.

primary deviance
initial deviance often undertaken to deal with transient problems in living.

primary research
research characterized by original and direct investigation.

proletariat
in Marxian theory, the working class.

protection/avoidance strategy
a crime control strategy which attempts to reduce criminal opportunities by changing people's routine activities, increasing guardianship, or by incapacitating convicted offenders.

psychiatric criminology
See forensic psychiatry.

psychiatric theories
those derived from the medical sciences, including neurology, and which, like other psychological theories, focus on the individual as the unit of analysis.

psychoactive substances
those which affect the mind, mental processes, or emotions.

psychoanalysis
the theory of human psychology founded by Freud on the concepts of the unconscious, resistance, repression, sexuality, and the Oedipus complex.

psychoanalytic criminology
is a psychiatric approach developed by the Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud which emphasizes the role of personality in human behavior, and which sees deviant behavior as the result of dysfunctional personalities.

psychological profiling
the attempt to categorize, understand, and predict, the behavior of certain types of offenders based upon behavioral clues they provide.

psychological theories
those derived from the behavioral sciences and which focus on the individual as the unit of analysis. Psychological theories place the locus of crime causation within the personality of the individual offender.

psychopath or sociopath
a person with a personality disorder, especially one manifested in aggressively antisocial behavior, which is often said to be the result of a poorly developed superego.

psychopathology
the study of pathological mental conditions, that is, mental illness.

psychosis
a form of mental illness in which sufferers are said to be out of touch with reality.

psychotherapy
a form of psychiatric treatment based upon psychoanalytical principles and techniques.

public policy
a course of action that government takes in an effort to solve a problem or to achieve an end.

punishment
undesirable behavioral consequences likely to decrease the frequency of occurrence of that behavior.

pure research
research undertaken simply for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge.

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