Chapter One

Analysis The third phase of the SDLC in which the current system is studied and alternative replacement systems are proposed.
Application independence The separation of data and the definition of data from the applications that use these data.
Application software Computer software designed to support organizational functions or processes.
Class See also Object class.
Data Raw facts about people, objects, and events in an organization.
Data flow Data in motion, moving from one place in a system to another.
Data-oriented approach An overall strategy of information systems development that focuses on the ideal organization of data rather than where and how data are used. See also Process-oriented approach.
Database A shared collection of logically related data designed to meet the information needs of multiple users in an organization.
End users Non-information-system professionals in an organization who specify the business requirements for and use software applications. End users often request new or modified applications, test and approve applications, and may serve on project teams as business experts.
End-user development An approach to systems development in which users who are not computer experts satisfy their own computing needs through the use of high-level software and languages such as electronic spreadsheets and relational database management systems. See also Help desk, Support.
Implementation The sixth phase of the SDLC in which the information system is coded, tested, installed, and supported in the organization.
Information Data that have been processed and presented in a form suitable for human interpreta-tion, often with the purpose of revealing trends or patterns.
Information systems analysis and design The complex organizational process whereby computer-based information systems are developed and maintained.
Inheritance The property that occurs when entity types or object classes are arranged in a hierarchy and each entity type or object class assumes the attributes and methods of its ancestors; that is, those higher up in the hierarchy. Inheritance allows new but related classes to be derived from existing classes. See also Generalization.
Joint Application Design (JAD) A structured process in which users, managers, and analysts work together for several days in a series of intensive meetings to specify or review system requirements.
Logical design The fourth phase of the SDLC in which all functional features of the system chosen for development in analysis are described independently of any computer platform.
Maintenance The final phase of the SDLC in which an information system is systematically repaired and improved; or changes made to a system to fix or enhance its functionality. See also Adaptive maintenance, Corrective maintenance, Perfective maintenance, Preventive maintenance.
Object An entity that has a well-defined role in the application domain and has state, behavior, and identity. See also Object class, Object diagram.
Object class (class) A set of objects that share a common structure and a common behavior. See also Abstract class, Concrete class.
Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) Systems development methodologies and techniques based on objects rather than data or processes.
Participatory Design (PD) A systems development approach that originated in Northern Europe in which users and the improvement in their work lives are the central focus.
Physical design The fifth phase of the SDLC in which the logical specifications of the system from logical design are transformed into technology-specific details from which all programming and system construction can be accomplished.
Process-oriented approach An overall strategy to information systems development that focuses on how and when data are moved through and changed by an information system. See also Data-oriented approach.
Processing logic The steps by which data are transformed or moved and a description of the events that trigger these steps.
Project identification and selection The first phase of the SDLC in which an organizationās total information system needs are identified, analyzed, prioritized, and arranged.
Project initiation and planning The second phase of the SDLC in which a potential information systems project is explained and an argument for continuing or not continuing with the project is presented; a detailed plan is also developed for conducting the remaining phases of the SDLC for the proposed system.
Prototyping An iterative process of systems development in which requirements are converted to a working system which is continually revised through close work between an analyst and users. See also Rapid Application Development (RAD).
Stakeholder A person who has an interest in an existing or new information system. A stakeholder is someone who is involved in the development of a system, in the use of a system, or someone who has authority over the parts of the organization affected by the system.
Systems analyst The organizational role most responsible for the analysis and design of information systems.
Systems development life cycle (SDLC) The traditional methodology used to develop, maintain, and replace information systems.
Systems development methodology A standard process followed in an organization to conduct all the steps necessary to analyze, design, implement, and maintain information systems.

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