Chapter Nineteen

Application program interface (API) Software which allows a specific front-end program development platform to communicate with a particular back-end database engine, even when the front-end and back-end were not built to be compatible.
Application server A computing server where data analysis functions primarily reside.
Client The (front-end) portion of the client/server database system that provides the user interface and data manipulation functions.
Client/server architecture A LAN-based computing environment in which a central database server or engine performs all database commands sent to it from client workstations, and application programs on each client concentrate on user interface functions.
Concurrency control A method for preventing loss of data integrity due to interference between users in a multiuser environment.
Database engine The (back-end) portion of the client/server database system running on the server and providing database processing and shared access functions.
Decision table A matrix representation of the logic of a decision, which specifies the possible conditions for the decision and the resulting actions. See also Action stubs, Condition stubs, Rules.
Distributed database A single logical database that is spread across computers in multiple locations which are connected by a data communications link. See also Location transparency.
File server A device that manages file operations and is shared by each client PC attached to a LAN. See also Client/server architecture.
Horizontal partitioning Distributing the rows of a table into several separate tables. See also Vertical partitioning.
Local area network (LAN) The cabling, hardware, and software used to connect workstations, computers, and file servers located in a confined geographical area (typically within one building or campus).
Location transparency A design goal for a distributed database which says that a user (or user program) requesting data need not know at which site those data are located.
Middleware A combination of hardware, software, and communication technologies that bring together data management, presentation, and analysis into a three-tiered client/server environment.
Three-tiered client/server Advanced client/server architectures in which there are three logical and distinct applications--data management, presentation, and analysis--which are combined to create a single information system.
Vertical partitioning Distributing the columns of a table into several separate tables. See also Horizontal partitioning.

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