Chapter Twenty

Acceptance testing The process whereby actual users test a completed information system, the end result of which is the users' acceptance of the system. See also System testing.
Alpha testing User testing of a completed information system using simulated data. See also Beta testing, System testing.
Beta testing User testing of a completed information system using real data in the real user environment. See also Alpha testing.
Computing infrastructure All the resources and practices required to help people adequately use computer systems to do their primary work. See also Support.
Conversion See Installation.
Desk checking A testing technique in which the program code is sequentially executed manually by the reviewer.
Direct installation Changing over from the old information system to a new one by turning off the old system when the new one is turned on.
Documentation See External documentation, Internal documentation, System documentation, User documentation.
Electronic performance support system (EPSS) Component of a software package or application in which training and educational information is embedded. An EPSS can take several forms, including a tutorial, an expert system shell, and hypertext jumps to reference material.
External documentation System documentation that includes the outcome of structured diagramming techniques such as data flow and entity-relationship diagrams. See also Internal documentation.
Help desk A single point of contact for all user inquiries and problems about a particular information system or for all users in a particular department. See also Computing infrastructure, Information center, Support.
Information center An organizational unit whose mission is to support users in exploiting information technology. See also Computing infrastructure, Help desk, Support.
Inspections A testing technique in which participants examine program code for predictable language-specific errors.
Installation The organizational process of changing over from the current information system to a new one. See also Direct installation, Parallel installation, Phased installation, Single location installation.
Integration testing The process of bringing together all of the modules that a program comprises for testing purposes. Modules are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion.
Internal documentation System documentation that is part of the program source code or is generated at compile time. See also External documentation.
Parallel installation Running the old information system and the new one at the same time until management decides the old system can be turned off.
Phased installation Changing from the old information system to the new one incrementally, starting with one or a few functional components and then gradually extending the installation to cover the whole new system.
Pilot installation See Single location installation.
Single location installation Trying out a new information system at one site and using the experience to decide if and how the new system should be deployed throughout the organization.
Staged installation See Phased installation.
Stub testing A technique used in testing modules, especially where modules are written and tested in a top-down fashion, where a few lines of code are used to substitute for subordinate modules.
Support Providing ongoing educational and problem solving assistance to information system users. For in-house developed systems, support materials and jobs will have to be prepared or designed as part of the implementation process. See also Computing infrastructure, Help desk, Information center.
System documentation Detailed information about a system‚s design specifications, its internal workings, and its functionality.
System testing The bringing together of all the programs that a system comprises for testing purposes. Programs are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion. See also Acceptance testing, Alpha testing, Beta testing, Integration testing, Stub testing.
Unit testing Method in which each module is tested alone in an attempt to discover any errors in its code.
User documentation Written or other visual information about an application system, how it works, and how to use it.

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