Macionis SOCIOLOGY, Ninth Edition


The final manuscript of this book was just about complete when the tragic events of September 11, 2001 took place. Rarely does the news of one day so change everyone’s lives. There is little doubt that terrorism will leave its mark on life in the United States and elsewhere for years to come as our concern for security prompts us to reexamine so many dimensions of our everyday lives.

More generally, these events force us to confront the question of what kind of world we live in and what kind of world we want for ourselves and for our children. It is here that readers of this book will discover the importance the discipline of sociology.

The daily e-mail I receive from students in the United States and around the world stands as testimony to the power of sociology to help people understand their world and, often, to transform people. Indeed, the material in this text was recently used in a presentation to the U.S. Supreme Court (Falvo v. Owasso Ind. School District, 2001). All instructors know well the deep satisfaction that comes from making a difference in the lives of our students. There is no greater reward for our work, and, in my case, no better reason for striving for ever-better revisions of Sociology, which, along with the briefer Society: The Basics, stand out as the discipline’s most popular texts.

I hope you will find Sociology to be authoritative, comprehensive, stimulating, and--as so many students testify--plain fun to read. In addition to the book, every new copy of Sociology, Ninth Edition comes with a second learning tool, a CD-ROM that provides a number of short video selections that illustrate major concepts, ideas, and theories. Included on the CD is a series of “author’s tip” videos--one for each chapter--that focuses the student on a key chapter theme. Finally, the third part of the learning package that comes free with each new book is access to a full-featured Web site  From the main page, simply click on the cover of the text and select a chapter to find chapter summaries, learning objectives, suggested essay questions and paper topics, as well as multiple-choice and true-false questions prepared by the author of the text.  When students complete these tests, the server will immediately grade them and point out exactly where they need more study. Also at this web site, faculty will find a full complement of teaching resources as well, including Power Point slides for download, and the Prentice Hall syllabus manager system that allows posting a course syllabus to the Internet without having to learn hypertext markup language (HTML).

Textbook, CD-ROM, and Web site: A three-part, multimedia package that is the foundation for sound learning in this new Information Age. We invite you to examine all three!


Part I of the textbook and the CD introduce the foundations of sociology. Underlying the discipline is the sociological perspective--the focus of Chapter 1, which explains how this invigorating point of view brings the world to life in a new and instructive way. Chapter 2 spotlights sociological investigation, or the “doing of sociology.” This chapter explains the scientific, interpretive, and critical orientations of the discipline, and illustrates major research strategies with actual, well-known sociological work.

Part II surveys the foundations of social life. Chapter 3 focuses on the central concept of culture, emphasizing the cultural diversity that makes up our society and our world. The focus of Chapter 4 is the concept of society, presenting four time-honored models for understanding the structure and dynamics of social organization. This unique chapter provides introductory students with the background to understand the ideas of important thinkers--including Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim, as well as Gerhard Lenski--that appear in subsequent chapters. Chapter 5 turns to socialization, exploring how we gain our humanity as we learn to participate in society. Chapter 6 provides a micro-level look at the patterns of social interaction that make up our everyday lives. Chapter 7 offers full-chapter coverage of groups and organizations, explaining the importance of group life and investigating how and why large organizations have come to dominate our way of life. Chapter 8 explains how the operation of society generates both deviance and conformity, and also surveys the operation of the criminal justice system. Chapter 9 explains the social foundations of human sexuality. This chapter surveys sexual patterns in the United States and also explores variations in sexual practices through history and around the world today.

Part III offers unparalleled discussion of social inequality, beginning with three chapters on social stratification. Chapter 10 introduces major concepts and presents theoretical explanations of social inequality. This chapter richly illustrates historical changes in stratification, and how patterns of inequality vary in today’s world. Chapter 11 surveys social inequality in the United States, confronting common perceptions of inequality and assessing how well they square with research findings. Chapter 12 extends the analysis with a look at global stratification, revealing the disparities in wealth and power that separate rich and poor nations. Both Chapters 11 and 12 pay special attention to how global developments affect stratification in the United States, just as they explore our society’s role in global inequality. Chapter 13, gender stratification, explains how gender is a central element in social stratification in the United States as it is worldwide. Race and ethnicity, additional important dimensions of social inequality that often intersect differences based on class and gender, are detailed in Chapter 14. Aging and the elderly, a topic of increasing concern to “graying” societies such as our own, is addressed in Chapter 15.

Part IV includes a full chapter on each social institution. Leading off is Chapter 16, the economy and work, because most sociologists recognize the economy as having the greatest impact on all other institutions. This chapter traces the rise and fall of industrial production in the United States, the emergence of a global economy, and explains what such transformations mean for the U.S. labor force. Chapter 17, politics and government, analyzes the distribution of power in U.S. society, as well as surveying political systems around the world. In addition, this chapter includes discussion of the U.S. military, the threat of war, and an expanded discussion of terrorism as a new form of war in the twenty-first century. Chapter 18, family, explains the central importance of families to social organization, and underscores the diversity of family life both here and in other societies. Chapter 19, religion, addresses the timeless human search for ultimate purpose and meaning, introduces major world religions, and explains how religious beliefs are linked to other dimensions of social life. Chapter 20, education, analyzes the expansion of schooling in industrial and postindustrial societies. Here again, schooling in the United States comes to life through contrasts with educational patterns in other countries. Chapter 21, health and medicine, reveals health to be a social issue just as much as it is a matter of biological processes. This chapter traces the historical emergence of scientific medicine, analyzes current medical issues and alternative approaches, and compares U.S. patterns to those found in other countries.

Part V examines important dimensions of global social change. Chapter 22 highlights the powerful impact of population growth and urbanization in the United States and throughout the world with special attention to the natural environment. Chapter 23 explores forms of collective behavior and explains how people seek or resist social change by joining social movements. Chapter 24 concludes the text with an overview of social change that contrasts traditional, modern, and postmodern societies. This chapter rounds out the text explaining how and why world societies change, and critically analyzing the benefits and liabilities of traditional, modern, and postmodern ways of life.


Everyone knows that introductory sociology texts have some things in common; but differences run deep. The extraordinary success of Sociology and Society: The Basics, which are far and away the most widely adopted texts by sociologists across North America, results from a combination of the following distinctive features.

The best writing style. Most important, this text offers a writing style widely praised by students and faculty alike as elegant and inviting. Sociology is an enjoyable text that encourages students to read--even beyond their assignments. No one says it better than the students themselves, whose recent e-mail includes testimonials such as these:

Thanks for writing such a brilliant book. It has sparked my sociological imagination.  This was the first textbook that I have ever read completely and enjoyed. From the moment that I picked the book up I started reading nonstop.


I have read four chapters ahead; it’s like a good novel I can’t put down!  I just wanted to say thank you. 


Your book is extremely well written and very interesting.  I find myself reading it for pleasure, something I have never done with college texts.  It is going to be the only collegiate textbook that I ever keep simply to read on my own.  I am also thinking of picking up sociology as my minor due to the fact that I have enjoyed the class as well as the text so much.  Your writing has my highest praise and utmost appreciation.


I am taking a Sociology 101 class using Sociology, a book that I have told my professor is the best textbook that I have ever seen, bar none. I’ve told her as well that I will be more than happy to take more sociology classes as long as there is a Macionis text to go with them.


I am fascinated by the contents of this textbook. In contrast to texts in my other classes, I actually enjoy readings Sociology. Thank you for such a thought-provoking, well-written textbook.


A global perspective. Sociology has taken a leading role in expanding the horizons of our discipline beyond the United States. Sociology was the first text to mainstream global content, introduce global maps, and offer coverage of global topics like stratification and the environment. No wonder this text has been adapted and translated in many languages for use all over the world. Each chapter explores global social diversity as well as explaining why social trends in the United States--from musical tastes, to pace of airport security, to the growing disparity of income--are influenced by what happens elsewhere.

A focus on national diversity. Sociology invites students from all social backgrounds to discover a fresh and exciting way to see the world and to understand themselves. Readers will find in this text the diversity of U.S. society--people of African, Asian, Middle Eastern, European, and Latino ancestry, as well as women and men of various class positions, in all parts of the country, and  at all points in the life course. An independent survey of all introductory books gave this text top marks for mainstreaming race and ethnicity (Stone, 1996).

Emphasis on critical thinking. Critical-thinking skills include the ability to challenge common assumptions by formulating questions, identify and weigh appropriate evidence, and reach reasoned conclusions. This text not only teaches but encourages students to discover on their own.

The broadest coverage so instructors can choose. No other text matches Sociology’s twenty-four chapter coverage of the field. We offer such breadth--at no greater cost--knowing that few instructors will assign every chapter, but with the goal of supporting instructors as they choose exactly what they wish to teach.

Engaging and instructive chapter openings. One of the most popular features of Sociology is the engaging vignettes that begin each chapter. These openings--for instance, using the tragic sinking of the Titanic to illustrate the life and death consequences of social inequality, telling the story of Linda Brown to explore racial inequality in the United States, or Utah’s recent prosecution of Tom Green for polygamy to describe our ideas about the family--spark the interest of readers as they introduce important themes. This revision retains eleven of the best chapter-opening vignettes found in earlier editions and offers thirteen new ones as well.

Inclusive focus on women and men. Beyond devoting two full chapters to the important concepts of sex and gender, Sociology mainstreams gender into every chapter, showing how the topic at hand affects women and men differently, and explaining how gender operates as a basic dimension of social organization.

Theoretically clear and balanced. Sociology, Ninth Edition, makes theory easy. Chapter 1 introduces the discipline’s major theoretical approaches, which are used in all the chapters that follow. The text highlights not only the social-conflict, structural-functional, and symbolic-interaction paradigms, but incorporates feminist theory, social-exchange analysis, ethnomethodology, cultural ecology, and sociobiology.

Chapter 4--unique to this text--provides students with an easy-to-understand introduction to important social theorists before they encounter their work in later chapters. The ideas of Max Weber, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, as well as Gerhard Lenski’s historical overview of human societies, appear in distinct sections that instructors may assign together or refer to separately at different points in a course.

Recent research and the latest data. Sociology, Ninth Edition, blends classic sociological statements with the latest research, as reported in the leading publications in the field. Some 250 new studies inform this revision, and about half of the 1500 pieces of research cited throughout the book were published since 1995. From chapter to chapter, the text’s statistical data are the most recent available and include the results of Census 2000.

Learning aids. This text has many features to help students learn. In each chapter, key concepts are identified by boldfaced type, and following each appears a precise, italicized definition.  A listing of key concepts with their definitions appears at the end of each chapter, and a complete Glossary is found at the end of the book. Each chapter also contains a numbered Summary and four Critical-Thinking Questions that help students review material and assess their understanding. Following these are a number of Applications and Exercises, which provides students with activities to do on or near the campus. Each chapter also includes an annotated listing of worthwhile Sites to See on the Internet.

Outstanding images: photography and fine art. This book offers the finest and most extensive program of photography and artwork available in any sociology textbook. The ninth edition of Sociology displays about 100 examples of fine art as well more than 250 color photographs--more than in any other text. Each of these images is carefully selected by the author and appears with an insightful caption. Moreover, both photographs and artwork present people of various social backgrounds and historical periods. For example, alongside art by well-known Europeans such as Vincent Van Gogh and U.S. artists including George Tooker, this edition has paintings by celebrated African American artists Jacob Lawrence and Henry Ossawa Tanner, outstanding Latino artists Frank Romero and Diego Rivera, and the engaging Australian painter and feminist Sally Swain.

Thought-provoking theme boxes. Although boxed material is common to introductory texts, Sociology, Ninth Edition provides a wealth of uncommonly good boxes. Each chapter typically contains four boxes, which fall into five types that amplify central themes of the text.  Global Sociology boxes provoke readers to think about their own way of life by examining the fascinating social diversity that characterizes our world. Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender  boxes focus on multicultural issues and amplify the voices of women and people of color. Applying Sociology boxes show the value of the sociological perspective to understanding the world around us. Critical Thinking boxes teach students to ask sociological questions about their surroundings, and help them evaluate important, controversial issues. Each Critical-Thinking box is followed by three “What do you think?” questions.  Controversy & Debate boxes conclude each chapter by presenting several points of view on an issue of contemporary importance. Three “Continue the debate” questions, which follow each box, are sure to stimulate spirited class discussion.

Sociology, Ninth Edition, contains ninety-three boxes in all (typically, four per chapter). Fourteen are new to this edition and many more are revised and updated. A complete listing of this text’s boxes appears after the table of contents.

An unparalleled program of sixty-seven global and national maps. This is the text that pioneered the use of global and national maps. Windows on the World Global Maps--thirty-two in all and including eleven new ones--are truly sociological maps offering a comparative look at the number of children typically born to women, income disparity, favored languages and religions, the extent of prostitution, permitted marriage forms, the practice of female genital mutilation, the degree of political freedom, the incidence of HIV infection, and a host of other issues. The Global Maps use the non-Eurocentric projection devised by cartographer Arno Peters that accurately portrays the relative size of all the continents. A complete listing of the Windows on the World Global Maps follows the table of contents.

Seeing Ourselves National Maps--thirty-five in all with four new and many updated for this edition--help to illuminate the social diversity of the United States. Most of these maps offer a close-up look at all 3,014 U.S. counties, highlighting suicide rates, median household income, labor force participation, college attendance, divorce rates, most widespread religious affiliation, availability of doctors, air quality, and, as measures of popular culture, where people play golf or where households prefer wine or drink beer. Each National Map includes an explanatory caption that poses several questions to stimulate students’ thinking about social forces. A complete listing of the Seeing Ourselves National Maps follows the table of contents.


Each new edition of Sociology has broken new ground, one reason that the popularity of this text and its brief version keeps rising. A revision raises high expectations, but, after several years of planning and hard work, we are pleased to offer what we believe is the best revision yet. Here is a brief overview of the innovations that define Sociology, Ninth Edition.

Keeping up with the field. As surprising as it may seem, some textbooks do not reflect new work in the field, making few references to sociology’s journals and taking little notice of new books. In preparing this revision, I have reviewed new publications--including American Journal of Sociology, American Sociological Review, Rural Sociology, Social Forces, Sociological Focus, Sociological Forum, Society, The Public Interest, Social Problems, Population Bulletin, Teaching Sociology, Contemporary Sociology, and Social Science Quarterly--as well as popular press publications that keep us abreast of current trends and events.

Improved high-tech! For this edition, the CD-ROM is a video library, presenting short clips that illustrate important concepts and ideas. This video material, drawn from the video library of ABC News, takes learning to a whole new level.

Students buying new copies of Sociology, Ninth Edition, are given a passcode to obtain free access to an updated Web site:<> Begin by clicking on the cover of this book and follow the easy-to-use menus. At the site, students will find a full range of study materials including computer graded practice tests. Faculty will find a resource bank including Power Point slides for download and software that will allow you to put a course syllabus on the Internet without having to know anything about HTML. in addition, all users of this book are invited to make use of videos, biographies, and dozens of links found at the author’s personal Web site: <> or <>.

Linking technology to the text. At four or five points in each chapter, the text directs students to visit carefully selected Web sites. These sites provides biographical material about sociologists, useful data, or information about an organization that deals with the topic at hand.

More coverage of rural issues.  Although most of the population of the United States lives in urban places, most of our country’s counties are rural. Therefore, this revision pays special attention not only to urban social patterns but also to rural issues. Example of this rural focus include a comparative analysis of rural and urban poverty and homelessness in Chapter 11, discussion of women in coal mining in Chapter 13; a discussion of the aging of U.S. farmers in Chapter 15; a new diversity box in chapter 17 on the rural-urban divide in U.S. politics, and a discussion of the “rural rebound” in Chapter 22, as well as more photographs and artwork that reflects rural life. In addition, we have recently added Rural Sociology to the list of journals that provide new research reported in this text.

New maps! The only way to improve on our colorful maps is be sure they are as up to date as possible. This edition features sixty-eight global and national maps, fifteen of them new to this edition.

New chapter-opening vignettes. This revision keeps the best of the popular chapter-opening vignettes and adds thirteen new ones; overall, more than half of the openings are new to this edition.

Many new boxes. A total of ninety-three boxes supports five themes of the text: Global Sociology, Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender, Critical Thinking, Applying Sociology and, focusing on social policy, Controversy & Debate. Many boxes are revised and updated; fourteen boxes are new to this edition.

The latest statistical data. Instructors count on this text for including the very latest statistical data. The ninth edition comes through again, making use of data from the Internet as well as conventional bound publications of various government agencies and private organizations. The author and Carol A. Singer, a professional government documents librarian at Bowling Green State University (Ohio), have worked together to ensure that the newest statistics are used throughout the text--in many cases for 1999, and even for 2000 and 2001. These data include reported results of Census 2000. In addition, readers will find 250 new research citations as well as many familiar current events that raise the interest of students.

New topics. The ninth edition of Sociology is thoroughly updated with new and expanded discussions in every chapter. Here is a listing, by chapter, of just some of the new material:

Chapter 1  The Sociological Perspective: A new chapter opening explores how and why U.S. children are deeply involved in sports; in addition, a new Global Map highlights the number of children born to women around the world.

Chapter 2  Sociological Investigation: New material includes new end-of-chapter learning ideas and several new Web sites are noted throughout the chapter.

Chapter 3  Culture: A new chapter opening describes the visit of members of the Andean Q’ero society to New York City; fins an update on “culture of victimization” thesis, a new journal entry on visiting Disney World, new links to author’s videos on travel and cultural relativism, and a new Global Sociology box comparing the dominant cultures of the United States and Canada.

Chapter 4  Society: There is an update on classic theorists’ view of the Information Revolution as well as links to on-line biographies of sociology’s founders.

Chapter 5  Socialization: Find an update on how the violent content in television programming and video games affects young children; a web link provides a complete chapter on the sociology of the mass media; a new Diversity box examines how race and ethnicity affect the personal development of high-school students.

Chapter 6  Social Interaction in Everyday Life: A new National map shows where people are and are not likely to be avid golfers; find updates on reality construction and the sociology of humor (including a few new jokes).

Chapter 7  Groups and Organizations: A new global snapshot highlights arts-related organizations in selected countries; there is an update on McDonaldization, as well as new data on the share of incumbents who held their congressional seats in the 2000 elections, discussion of using social networks to find jobs among by gender, race, and ethnicity, an update on gender and management positions in the United States, and new material on the controversy surrounding computers, large organizations, and personal privacy.

Chapter 8  Deviance: A new national map shows the risk of violent crime for all U.S. counties; three are updates on U.S. crime rates, and a fresh look at the rising debate over capital punishment.

Chapter 9 Sexuality: A new chapter opening illustrates the problems of acceptance faced by transgender individuals; there are updates on U.S. attitudes about sexual practices, and a new Global Map shows the use of contraception around the world.

Chapter 10 Social Stratification: Find an update on the unequal distribution of wealth in the United States; a new figure shows that income inequality is greater in the United States than in high-income European nations.

Chapter 11   Social Class in the United States: A new opening looks at a case of high-flying executive pay; a new National Map shows average income for all counties across the United States; we’ve added a new discussion of rural homelessness and updated statistics on income, wealth, and poverty.

Chapter 12  Global Stratification: A new chapter opening on natural disasters that are all-too-common in low-income nations; find new data showing which countries now fall into high-, middle-, and low-income categories as well as a new figure shows the world’s increasing income inequality.

Chapter 13 Gender Stratification: The chapter includes two new Global Maps showing women’s power and the practice of female genital mutilation in global perspective; there are updates on the share of women in various jobs categories, including new data on the number of women in top corporate positions; new statistics show the latest gaps in earnings between women and men or various racial and ethnic categories; new Web links take readers to recent government reports concerning gender.

Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity: A new journal entry points out racial and ethnic stratification in everyday life; find Census 2000 data for various racial and ethnic categories as well as updates on income and other measures of social standing by race and ethnicity; there is more on the social construction of ethnicity as well as race, and the intersection of these variables with class and gender.

Chapter 15 Aging and the Elderly: A new chapter opening looks at the role of middle-aged people caring for aging parents; new data show the advancing average age of U.S. farmers; updates on income data for all categories of elderly people in the United States; a number of new Web sites provide access to recent data and analysis on aging.

Chapter 16 The Economy and Work: A new chapter opener illustrates the power of technology to change the character of work; a new Global Map shows the share of the labor force in service sector jobs for world nations; the chapter offers new data (which may surprise you) on the share of the labor force around the world involved in each of the three economic sectors; new data on the U.S. labor force highlight the increasing share of minorities.

Chapter 17 Politics and Government: Updates on the 2000 elections, including a new National Map showing the county-by-county results of the presidential race; a new Diversity box explains the rural-urban divide in U.S. politics; there is extensive coverage of terrorism and the events of September 11th, including an analysis of terrorism as a new form of “asymmetrical” war.

Chapter 18 Family: A new opening profiles the “plural marriage” of Tom Green and his conviction for bigamy; updates provided on all family trends, including singlehood, divorce, single parenting, and cohabitation; family data from Census 2000.

Chapter 19 Religion: Did you know the number of Muslims in the United States exceeds the number of Episcopalians, Presbyterians, or Jews? Find the most recent data--as well as an update on the ordination of women; there is also a new section on the search for spirituality in postdenominational U.S. society.

Chapter 20 Education: A new chapter opening highlights the far better performance on proficiency tests by children living in high-income communities compared to those from low-income areas; find updates on all the educational statistics as well as a new discussion of the U.S. teacher shortage.

Chapter 21 Health and Medicine: This chapter offers an update on the share of minority physicians in the United States as well as a new statistical profile of the health of the U.S. population; there is expanded discussion of medical care policy in Canada.

Chapter 22 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment: Find a new chapter opening as well as a new section describing the “rural rebound” trend; a new Diversity box uses Census 2000 to highlight the minority majority in half the nation’s largest one hundred cities; there are updates on all U.S. demographic data, and more on “critical demography.”

Chapter 23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements: A new chapter opening describes the massive demonstration at the Seattle meeting of the World Trade Organization in 1999; there is also a new discussion of moral panics, including the widespread fear in the wake of the events of September 11th.

Chapter 24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies: A new chapter opening highlights the lives of people living in the same New York apartment a century apart; a new table provides a snapshot of change in the United States across the twentieth century; a new journal entry describes the appearance of mass society and a updated figure shows support for science for selected nations around the world.


This text’s commitment to representing the social diversity of the United States and the world carries with it the responsibility to use language thoughtfully. In most cases, we prefer the terms African American and person of color to the word black. We use the terms Hispanic and Latino to refer to people of Spanish descent. Most tables and figures refer to “Hispanics” because this is the term the Census Bureau uses when collecting statistical data about our population.

 Students should realize, however, that many individuals do not describe themselves using these terms.  Although the term “Hispanic” is commonly used in the eastern part of the United States, and “Latino” and the feminine form “Latina” are widely heard in the West, across the United States people of Spanish descent identify with a particular ancestral nation, whether it be Argentina, Mexico, some other Latin American country, or Spain or Portugal in Europe.

The same holds for Asian Americans. Although this term is a useful shorthand in sociological analysis, most people of Asian descent think of themselves in terms of a specific country of origin (say, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, or Vietnam).

In this text, the term “Native American” refers to all the inhabitants of the Americas (including the Hawaiian Islands) whose ancestors lived here prior to the arrival of Europeans. Here again, however, most people in this broad category identify with their historical society (for example, Cherokee, Hopi, or Zuni). The term “American Indian” designates only those Native Americans who live in the continental United States, not including Native peoples living in Alaska or Hawaii.

Learning to think globally also leads us to use language carefully. This text avoids the word “American”--which literally designates two continents--to refer to just the United States. For example, referring to this country, the term “U.S. economy” is more correct than the “American economy.” This convention may seem a small point, but it implies the significant recognition that we in this country represent only one society (albeit a very important one) in the Americas.


Sociology, Ninth Edition, is the heart of a multimedia learning package that includes a wide range of proven instructional aids. As the author of the text, I maintain a keen interest in all the supplements to ensure their quality and integration with the text. The supplements for this revision have been thoroughly updated, improved, and expanded.


The Annotated Instructor's Edition. The AIE is a complete text annotated by the author on every page in a special edition for instructors. Annotations--which have been revised for this edition--have won praise from instructors for enriching class presentations. Margin notes include notable quotations, summaries of research findings, statistics from the United States or other nations, data highlighting social diversity in the United States, and high-quality survey data from the National Opinion Research Center’s (NORC) General Social Survey and World Values Survey data from the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR).

Data File. This is the instructor’s manual that is of interest even to those who have never used one before. The Data File provides far more than detailed chapter outlines and discussion questions; it contains statistical profiles of the United States and other nations, summaries of important developments and significant research, and supplemental lecture material for every chapter of the text. The Data File is available on paper and electronically in Windows format.

Test Item File. A revised Test Item File is available in both printed and electronic forms. The file contains 2400 items--100 per chapter--in multiple-choice, true/false, and essay formats. Questions are identified as simple “recall” or more complex “inferential” issues; the answers to all questions are page-referenced to the text. Prentice Hall Custom Test is a test generator designed to create personalized exams. It is available in DOS, Windows, and Macintosh formats. Prentice Hall also provides a test preparation service to users of this text that is as easy as a call to our toll-free 800 number. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative for this number.

Core Test Item File, Second Edition. The general test item file consists of more than 350 test questions appropriate for introductory sociology courses. All of the questions have been class tested, and an item analysis is available for every question.

Film/Video Guide: Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology, Sixth Edition. This helpful guide is keyed to the chapters of this text and describes more than 300 films and videos appropriate for classroom viewing. It also provides summaries, discussion questions, and rental sources for each film and video.

ABCNEWS ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library for Sociology.

Power Point Transparencies

Color transparencies

instructor’s guide to...



            Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Create an even more powerful learning package by combining this text with the fifth edition of the best-selling anthology, Seeing Ourselves, edited by John J. Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis (University of Baltimore). Instructors favor this reader’s unique format: Clusters of readings--classic works, well-rounded contemporary research, and cross-cultural comparisons--that correspond to each of the chapters in Sociology, Eighth Edition.


Study Guide


 Critical Thinking Audiocassette Tape. In keeping with the text’s critical-thinking approach,  a sixty-minute audio cassette tape is available to help students think and read critically.


The conventional practice of designating a single author obscures the efforts of dozens of women and men that have resulted in Sociology, Ninth Edition. I would like to express my thanks to the Prentice Hall editorial team, including Yolanda DeRooy, division president, Laura Pearson, editorial director, Nancy Roberts, publisher, and Chris DeJohn, executive editor in sociology, for their steady enthusiasm, and for pursuing both innovation and excellence. Day-to-day work on the book is shared by the author and the production team. Susanna Lesan, developmental editor-in-chief at Prentice Hall, has played a vital role in the development of all my texts for more than fifteen years, coordinating and supervising the editorial process. Barbara Reilly, production editor at Prentice Hall, is a vital member of the team. Barbara deserves much of the credit for the attractive page layout of the book; indeed, if anyone “sweats the details” more than the author, it is Barbara! Amy Marsh Macionis, the text’s “in house” editor, checks virtually everything, untangling awkward phrases, eliminating errors and inconsistencies in all the statistical data. Amy is a most talented editor who is relentless in her pursuit of quality; my debt to her is great, indeed.

I also have a large debt to the members of the Prentice Hall sales staff, the men and women who have given this text such remarkable support over the years. Thanks, especially, to Beth Gillett Mejia and Christopher Barker who direct our marketing campaign.

Thanks, too, to <insert name> for providing the interior design of the book, which was coordinated in-house by art director Carole Anson. Developmental and copy editing of the manuscript was provided by Harriett Prentiss, Carol Peschae, and Amy Marsh Macionis. Barbara Salz did the research for our photographs, and Francelle Carapetyan helped locate much of the fine art.

It goes without saying that every colleague knows more about some topics covered in this book than the author does. For that reason, I am grateful to the hundreds of faculty and students who have written to me to offer comments and suggestions. More formally, I am grateful to the following people who have reviewed some or all of this manuscript:

<insert reviewer list>

I also wish to thank the following colleagues for sharing their wisdom in ways that have improved this book: Doug Adams (The Ohio State University), Kip Armstrong (Bloomsburg University), Rose Arnault (Fort Hays State University), Scott Beck (Eastern Tennessee State University), Lois Benjamin (Hampton University),  Philip Berg (University of Wisconsin, La Crosse), Charlotte Brauchle (Southwest Texas Junior College), Bill Brindle (Monroe Community College), John R. Brouillette (Colorado State University), Cathryn Brubaker (DeKalb College), Brent Bruton (Iowa State University), Richard Bucher (Baltimore City Community College),  Evandro Camara,  Karen Campbell (Vanderbilt University), Harold Conway (Blinn College), Gerry Cox (Fort Hays State University), Lovberta Cross (Shelby State Community College), Robert Daniels (Mount Vernon Nazarene College), James A. Davis (Harvard University), Sumati Devadutt (Monroe Community College), Keith Doubt (Northeast Missouri State University), Denny Dubbs (Harrisburg Area Community College); Travis Eaton (Northeast Louisiana State University), Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh (University of Houston), John Ehle (Northern Virginia Community College); Roger Eich (Hawkeye Community College), Heather Fitz Gibbon (The College of Wooster), Kevin Fitzpatrick (University of Alabama-Birmingham), Dona C. Fletcher (Sinclair Community College), Charles Frazier (University of Florida), Karen Lynch Frederick (St. Anselm College), Patricia Gagne (University of Kentucky, Louisville), Pam Gaiter (Collin County Community College), Jarvis Gamble (Owen’s Technical College), Steven Goldberg (City College, City University of New York), Charlotte Gotwald (York College of Pennsylvania), Norma B. Gray (Bishop State Community College), Rhoda Greenstone (DeVry Institute), Jeffrey Hahn (Mount Union College), Harry Hale (Northeast Louisiana State University), Dean Haledjian (Northern Virginia Community College), Dick Haltin (Jefferson Community College), Marvin Hannah (Milwaukee Area Technical College), Charles Harper (Creighton University), Gary Hodge (Collin County Community College), Elizabeth A. Hoisington (Heartland Community College), Sara Horsfall (Stephen F. Austin State University), Peter Hruschka (Ohio Northern University), Glenna Huls (Camden County College), Jeanne Humble (Lexington Community College), Cynthia Imanaka (Seattle Central Community College), Patricia Johnson (Houston Community College), Ed Kain (Southwestern University), Paul Kamolnick (Eastern Tennessee State University), Irwin Kantor (Middlesex County College), Thomas Korllos (Kent State University), Rita Krasnow (Virginia Western Community College), Donald Kraybill (Elazabethtown College); Michael Lacy (Colorado State university), Michael Levine (Kenyon College), George Lowe (Texas Tech University), Don Luidens (Hope College), Larry Lyon (Baylor University), Li-Chen Ma (Lamar University), Karen E. B. McCue (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque), Meredith McGuire (Trinity College), Setma Maddox (Texas Wesleyan University), Errol Magidson (Richard J. Daley College), Allan Mazur (Syracuse University), Jack Melhorn (Emporia State University), Ken Miller (Drake University), Richard Miller (Navarro College), Joe Morolla (Virginia Commonwealth University), Craig Nauman (Madison Area Technical College), Toby Parcel (The Ohio State University), Anne Peterson (Columbus State Community College), Marvin Pippert (Roanoke College), Lauren Pivnik (Monroe Community College), Nevel Razak (Fort Hays State College), Jim Rebstock (Broward Community College); George Reim (Cheltenham High School), Virginia Reynolds (Indiana University of Pennsylvania), Laurel Richardson (The Ohio State University), Keith Roberts (Hanover College); Ellen Rosengarten (Sinclair Community College), Howard Schneiderman (Lafayette College), Ray Scupin (Linderwood College), Steve Severin (Kellogg Community College); Harry Sherer (Irvine Valley College), Walt Shirley (Sinclair Community College), Anson Shupe (Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne), Ree Simpkins (Missouri Southern State University), Glen Sims (Glendale Community College), Nancy Sonleitner (University of Oklahoma), Larry Stern (Collin County Community College), Randy Ston (Oakland Community College), Verta Taylor (The Ohio State University), Vickie H. Taylor (Danville Community College), Mark J. Thomas (Madison Area Technical College), Len Tompos (Lorain County Community College), Christopher Vanderpool (Michigan State University), Phyllis Watts (Tiffin University); Murray Webster (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Debbie White (Collin County Community College), Marilyn Wilmeth (Iowa University), Stuart Wright (Lamar University), William Yoels (University of Alabama, Birmingham), Dan Yutze (Taylor University), Wayne Zapatek (Tarrant County Community College), and Frank Zulke (Harold Washington College).

Finally, I would like to dedicate this edition of the book to all the men and women who became heroes in the wake of events of Setpember 11th in ways big and small, including those known to many and those known to just a few. In the face of terror, they rose up, reached out to others even at the cost of their own lives, and displayed the very best that lies within us.

John J. Macionis